Many Arctic species, including reindeer, marine mammals and many fish and birds, have adapted to the challenges of extreme weather conditions and scarce resources by migrating between different habitats, both inside and outside the Arctic. The threats facing these species include overharvesting, habitat degradation and low population densities. Populations and migratory patterns can also be affected by pollution, invasive species and the northern expansion of southern species. Migratory species are an important ecological link between the Arctic and the rest of the world. International coordination is key to successful conservation because migratory species face threats across their whole migratory range.
Oceans North, 2018; P. Boveng, et al., Seasonal Migration of Bearded Seals Between Intensive Foraging Patches, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Global Fishing Watch, 2018; B. Lehner, et al., High-Resolution Mapping of the World’s Reservoirs and Dams for Sustainable River-Flow Management, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2011, 9(9): 494–502; Environment and Natural Resources (ENR), Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT), Barren-ground Caribou; Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network (CARMA); WWF Arctic Geographical Information System; G.B. Stenson, et al., The Impact of Changing Climate and Abundance on Reproduction in an Ice-dependent Species, the Northwest Atlantic Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2015, 73(2): 250–262; P.E. Jorde, et al., Detecting Genetic Structure in Migrating Bowhead Whales off the Coast of Barrow, Alaska, Molecular Ecology, 2007, 16(10): 1993–2004; D. W. Hauser, Seasonal Sea Ice and Arctic Migrations of the Beluga Whale, Alaska Park Science, 2018, 17(1); Kuznetsova et al., 2016; WWF, 2018; US Global Change Research Programme, 2018; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Ocean Media Center and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Alaska Fisheries Science Center, 2010; Arctic Portal, 2018; CAFF, 2017.
From collection: Global linkages – a graphic look at the changing Arctic (rev.1)
Philippe Rekacewicz and Nieves Lopez Izquierdo