Global trade and transport, both overland and via oceans, is contributing to the unintended spread of species across the globe. In other cases, species have been introduced on purpose. These non-native species are known as invasive species. The intentional relocation of some species of crops and livestock has caused the expansion of agriculture and brought economic benefits. However, they often have unforeseen effects on other native species, ecosystems and people. Globally, invasive species are the second-biggest threat to biodiversity after habitat destruction. There are fewer known invasive species in the Arctic than further south. However, any increase in shipping activity is a major concern for their introduction. Coordinated national and international action is needed to limit the spread of invasive species.
N. Vestergaard, et al., Arctic Marine Resource Governance and Development, Springer, 2018; J.L. Molnar, et al., Assessing the Global Threat of Invasive Species to Marine Biodiversity, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2008, 6(9): 485–492; State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Key Findings and Advice for Monitoring, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), 2017; G. Lorentzen, et al., Current Status of the Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtchaticus) and Snow Crab (Chionoecetes opilio) Industries in Norway, Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 2018, 26(1): 42–54; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Fisheries and Aquaculture, Aquatic Species Distribution; E. Regan, et al., Global Threats from Invasive Alien species in the Twenty-first Century and National Response Capacities, Nature Communications, 2016, 7: 12485; Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME), 2018; L. Fernandez et al. (eds.), Marine invasive species in the Arctic, Norden, 2014; CAFF, Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), 2018; K.L. Laidre, et al., Quantifying the Sensitivity of Arctic Marine Mammals to Climate‐induced Habitat Change, Ecological Applications, 2008, 18(2 special): S97–S125.
From collection: Global linkages – a graphic look at the changing Arctic (rev.1)
Philippe Rekacewicz and Nieves Lopez Izquierdo