Global trade and transport, both overland and via oceans, is contributing to the unintended spread of species across the globe. In other cases, species have been introduced on purpose. These non-native species are known as invasive species.The intentional relocation of some species of crops and livestock has caused the expansion of agriculture and brought economic benefits. However, they often have unforeseen effects on other native species, ecosystems and people. Globally, invasive species are the second-biggest threat to biodiversity after habitat destruction.
J.L. Molnar, et al., Assessing the Global Threat of Invasive Species to Marine Biodiversity, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2008, 6(9): 485–492; H. Seebens, et al., Predicting the Spread of Marine Species Introduced by Global Shipping, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2016, 113(20): 5646–5651; R. Early, et al., Global Threats from Invasive Alien Species in the Twenty-first Century and National Response Capacities, Nature, 2016, 7: 12485; International Maritime Organization (IMO); P. Rekacewicz, et al., UNOSAT Global Report on Maritime Piracy – A Geospatial Analysis 1995–2013, 2014.
From collection: Global linkages – a graphic look at the changing Arctic (rev.1)
Philippe Rekacewicz and Nieves Lopez Izquierdo