Once litter and microplastics have entered the marine environment, their movement is controlled by ocean tides, currents, waves and winds. In coastal areas tides interact with shoreline characteristics and move litter on- and offshore, depending on its chemical composition, surface charge, density, size and shape (Mattsson et al. 2015; Chubarenko et al. 2016; Fazey and Ryan 2016; Kooi et al. 2016; Pedrotti et al. 2016; Zhang 2017; Alimi et al. 2018; Chubarenko et al. 2018; Dussud et al. 2018a,b; Lebreton et al. 2018; Castro-Jiménez et al. 2019; Lebreton et al. 2019; Napper and Thompson 2019; Onink et al. 2019; Peng, G. et al. 2020; van Sebille et al. 2020; Harris et al. 2021 ).
From collection: From Pollution to Solution: A Global Assessment of Marine Litter and Plastic Pollution