Ingestion, physical entanglement, smothering, and the
transport of pathogens in biofilms are causing a range of
lethal and non-lethal effects in marine organisms, including
physiological disturbances, disease, changes in gene expression, alterations of behaviour, and shifts in species assemblages and biodiversity. These in turn, have impacts on ecosystems, leading to a wide range of social and economic consequences such as loss of revenue from natural resources and damage to maritime industries and coastal infrastructure.
From collection: From Pollution to Solution: A Global Assessment of Marine Litter and Plastic Pollution