With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR samples from the North Sea at levels that were 6 standard deviations above previous measurements since 1958. Further evidence of this warning signal is seen in the appearance of a Pacific planktonic plant (a diatom Neodenticula seminae) in the Northwest Atlantic for the first time in 800,000 years, by transfer across the top of Canada due to the rapid melting of Arctic ice in 1998.
From collection: In Dead Water - Climate Change, Pollution, Over-harvest, and Invasive Species in the World's Fishing Grounds
Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal