Although Africa is home to 15 per cent of the world’s population, it only has 9 per cent of the global water resources (Wang et al. 2014; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP] 2010). Africa’s scarce water resource situation is compounded by wastewater pollution. It is estimated that well over 80 per cent of the wastewater worldwide is released into the environment without treatment (United Nations Water [UN-Water] 2017). The relative lack of water on the African continent highlights the need to treat wastewater to improve surface and groundwater
quality, enhance the natural water supply and reduce “stress and pressure” on available water resources (Omosa et al. 2014).