Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry

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Chapter 5: Project-Based Activities


5.1 Introduction

5.1.1. Scope of the Chapter
5.1.2. Characteristics of Projects

5.2. Magnitude and Experience of Project-Based Activities

5.2.1. Quantifying Project Activities: Issues and Methods
5.2.2. Experience in LULUCF Project-Based Activities: Estimates of Sequestration, Emissions Avoidance, Substitution, and Land Areas Involved
5.2.3. Financial Analysis of LULUCF Project Activities
5.2.4. Potential Magnitude of LULUCF Projects
5.2.5. Factors that May Affect the Realized Magnitude of Projects

5.3. Issues Arising from the Implementation of Projects

5.3.1. Project Boundary
5.3.2. Baselines and Additionality Alternative Approaches Proposed for Establishing Baselines Project-specific versus generic Approaches for determining baselines Fixed or adjustable baselines? Additionality Tests

5.3.3. Leakage Assessing Leakage Methods for Monitoring Leakage Options for Responding to Leakage

5.3.4. Project Duration How Long Do Projects Have To Be Run? How Should Projects with Shorter Time Frames Be Treated?

5.3.5. Risks

5.4. Measuring, Accounting, Monitoring, and Verifying GHG Benefits

5.4.1. Methods for Quantification of Project GHG Benefits Identification of Carbon Pools Measurement of Carbon Benefits

5.4.2. Accounting Carbon Accounting Methods Stock change method Average storage method Alternative approaches Comparison of methods Accounting for Risks and Uncertainty Accounting for Time (Discounting)

5.4.3. Monitoring
5.4.4. Precision and Costs
5.4.5. Verification
5.4.6. Reporting

5.5. Associated Impacts (Benefits and Costs) of LULUCF Projects

5.5.1. Associated Impacts of Project Activities that Avoid Emissions
5.5.2. Associated Impacts of Projects that Sequester Carbon
5.5.3. Associated Impacts of Carbon Substitution Projects

5.6. Factors Affecting the Sustainable Development Contributions of LULUCF Projects

5.6.1. Consistency with Nationally Defined Sustainable Development and/or National Development Goals
5.6.2. Availability of Sufficient Institutional and Technical Capacity to Develop and Implement Project Guidelines and Safeguards
5.6.3. Extent and Effectiveness of Local Community Participation in Project Development and Implementation
5.6.4. Transfer and Local Adaptation of Technology

5.7. Implications of Project-Based Activities for Countries with and without Assigned Amounts of Emissions


Sandra Brown (USA), Omar Masera (Mexico), and Jayant Sathaye (USA)

Lead Authors:
K. Andrasko (USA), P. Brown (USA), P. Frumhoff (USA), R. Lasco (Philippines), G. Leach (UK), P. Moura-Costa (Brazil), S. Mwakifwamba (Tanzania), G. Phillips (UK), P. Read (New Zealand), P. Sudha (India), R. Tipper (UK)

A. Riedacker (France), M. Pinard (USA), M. Stuart (USA), C. Wilson (UK)

Review Editor:
M. Trexler (USA)

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