Of the one billion people living on the African continent, about 40 per cent lives in urban areas. Between 1990 and 2010, the total urban population in Africa doubled from 205 million to 400 million, and by 2050, it is expected that this will triple to 1.23 billion. Of the total urban population, 60 per cent is living in slum conditions. In a time of rapid urban growth, Africa is likely to experience some of the most severe impacts of climate change, particularly when in terms of water and food security. This places huge pressures on the growing urban populations as well as the surrounding urban ecosystems on which they depend.