Methodological and Technological issues in Technology Transfer

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12.4 Technology Transfer within Countries

Climate mitigation projects under the bilateral and multilateral arrangements in the forestry sector could in some cases involve only transfer of funds from donor to host countries and agencies, without any external transfer of technology. Thus, diffusion of technology within countries becomes important, particularly in countries with large mitigation potential such as China, India, Indonesia (Sathaye and Ravindranath, 1998), Brazil (Fearnside, 1999) and Russia. The existing and emerging arrangements within countries need to be strengthened and reoriented. The current level of technology transfer in the forestry sector, particularly in developing countries, is marginal due to limitations of infrastructure and barriers in dissemination of R&D outputs. This has not led to enhanced productivity in either the state-managed or farmer-managed plantation forestry systems (Ravindranath and Hall, 1995). Forestry needs to be more productive and profitable to be attractive to private investors under some of the climate change mitigation programmes. Technology transfer within countries is very crucial in the forestry sector. The sources of technology or management practices for in-country technology transfer could be:

The main drivers or incentives for diffusing technologies, the key stakeholders, the potential barriers, and measures to overcome the barriers vary with technologies and some examples are listed in Table 12.3.

Table 12.3 Potential Drivers, Stakeholders, Pathways for Technology Transfer, Barriers to Transfer and Policies and Measures for Promoting Technology Transfer
Drivers or incentives Biodiversity conservation, watershed protection (national)
Access to forest products, eco-tourism, rural job (individual)
Carbon conservation, credits and financial rewards (global)
Stakeholders Indigenous communities
National governments
Conservation groups
Barriers Inadequate understanding of deforestation causes to propose effective counter measures
Potential loss of revenue for the government and timber logging companies
Lack of institutions for enabling community participation Inadequate skills for managing
Protected Area and SFM practices
Inadequate financial incentives for forest conservation
Policies and measures Financial support for compensating loss to the government, particularly to local communities
Institutions for implementing policies for decreasing deforestation
Institutions to facilitate community participation and management
Training and capacity building for forest management, sustainable logging techniques.
Protected Area management
Education and awareness
Incentives and driver Income generation from agroforestry and reforestation (non timber products)
Watershed protection - if degraded lands used
Potential financial rewards for carbon credits
Stakeholders Governments, Farmers and Companies, local communities,
Barriers Lack of funding and high cost of credit
Regulations on land use
Lack of technology for high growth rate
Lack of policies to ensure sustainability of C sequestered
Opportunity cost of land and current product flows
Policies and measures Financial support and mechanisms to compensate for opportunity lost
Financial rewards for carbon sink creation
Land tenure policies for sustaining carbon sink in selected categories of land
Incentives and drivers Profit motive from sale of wood to bioenergy utility and timber companies
Potential financial rewards for pollution abatement and carbon credits
Reclamation of degraded lands and meeting biomass needs
Stakeholders Farmers, bioenergy utility, plantation owners, paper mills and NGOs
Barriers Absence of policies to promote sustainable bioenergy or timber plantations
Subsidies to companies to extract timber from natural forests and to use fossil fuel energy
Lack of finance and financing institutions
Lack of access to technology; bioenergy and high yielding silvicultural practices and quality seedling
Policies and measures Financial incentives to sustainable timber producers and bioenergy utilities
Sale of technology
Level playing field for bioenergy and sustainable timber

The categories of technologies likely to be involved in technology transfer within countries are: a) silvicultural practices for high yields, b) improved genetic stock for planting, c) practices for sustainable forest management and Protected Area Management, d) monitoring and verification of C flows in forestry projects, e) efficiency improvements, f) utilisation and management of secondary forests, and g) traditional forest management practices adopted by indigenous communities. The policies and measures required for promoting technology transfer within Annex I and non-Annex I countries are given in Tables 12.3. and 12.4.

Table 12.4 Technology Transfer Within Countries: Pathways, Policies, Programmes, and Measures
Financial incentives for companies importing sustainable timber
Financial incentives and tax rebates to promote recycling
Regulations restricting deforestation and policy changes reducing motivation for deforestation
Regulations on timber extraction companies for adopting sustainable logging practices
Awareness programmes regarding forest conservation
Financial incentives for adopting sustainable forest management and reduced impact logging practices
Capacity-building programmes for monitoring of carbon flows Funding capacity building in R&D institutions
Promoting research to understand causes of deforestation
Training in sustainable logging and management practices for forest department and timber logging companies
Strengthening forest extension service
Formation of Protected Areas
Framework for policies on land and product tenures to promote community participation
Linkage between research institutions and forest departments
Timber certification
Investment in forestry R&D
Joint ventures between industry and forest departments for technology transfer
Farmer and industry partnership
Financial incentives; tax incentives, low cost credit to farmers for raising commercial wood in low carbon density lands
Industry providing technology as a package for farmers will ensure flow of modern technology
Consumer interest groups/NGOs to ensure enforcement of regulations; paper recycling, marketing of sustainable timber
Public awareness to promote use of sustainably logged timber
NGOs to promote community participation for adopting forest conservation measures
Community awareness on forest conservation

In many developing countries, logging of natural forests constitutes an important economic activity within the forestry sector (Masera, 1995). There is significant transfer of "hardware" at the timber processing stages, usually from industrialised countries. Barriers for sustainable logging include:

Policies and measures include increased access to funding for investment in basic infrastructure, technical and administrative training of local communities, and internalisation of "environmental services" to compete with alternative land uses.

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