Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Footnotes for Chapter 2

  1. Canopy (or crown) projected cover is the proportion of ground area covered by tree crowns. CPC is estimated by vertically projecting outlines of tree crowns onto the horizontal plane that represents the forest stand area. It is also called "crown cover," "canopy closure," "cover closure," or similar terms such as "polnota." Another term-foliage projected cover (FPC)-is used occasionally. FPC is the proportion of a forest stand covered by foliage, which is usually a little less than CPC. FPC should not be confused with leaf area index (LAI), which is the ratio of the one-sided projection of the area of leaves (or needles) to the ground area-essentially, the average number of leaves above a point in the forest stand.
  2. In calculating the Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) of GHGs, it was assumed that CO2 fertilization is not anthropogenic. The calculations use models that take into account the absorption of GHGs into the oceans and, in the case of the reference gas, CO2, its uptake as a consequence of CO2 fertilization. Thus, if CO2 fertilization were subtracted from the estimate of total emissions (i.e., on the basis that it is anthropogenic and is an uptake), the effect of CO2 fertilization would be double-counted. Although this effect could be corrected by recalculating all of the GWPs, this recalculation would have other policy repercussions. The main effect of such a recalculation would be to significantly reduce the GWPs of non-CO2 GHGs.
  3. Carbon sequestration must be distinguished from fossil fuel substitution, which can also be achieved by some LULUCF options (e.g., charcoal substitution for mineral coal). Fossil fuel substitution through forestry is just as permanent as avoided emissions through measures such as enhancing energy efficiency.
  4. The approximation of the output of the Bern model version used (but not published) in the SAR is given by:
    F[CO2(t)] = 0.175602 + 0.137467 exp(-t/421.093) + 0.185762 exp(-t/70.5965) + 0.242302 exp(-t/21.42165) + 0.258868 exp(-t/3.41537)
    where F is the fraction of CO2 remaining in the atmosphere and t is the time after emission in years.
  5. This Special Report makes no assumption about whether, or to what extent, LULUCF project activities will be approved for crediting under the CDM.
  6. The categorization of LULUCF activities in this chapter differs slightly from the categorization of LULUCF projects in Chapter 6. The primary distinction across activity categories here is the change in land use, whereas the primary distinction across project categories in Chapter 6 is the change in carbon.