Interwies (2011) and Interwies and Görlitz (2013) consider the listed cultural services (aesthetic, spiritual, educational etc.) and “possibilities for tourism and recreation” as “non-use” values,69 but The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) Ecological and Economic Foundations considers all cultural services (including tourism) as “direct use” values and “possibilities for tourism and recreation” as a future direct use value (“option value”). “Nonuse
value” is the satisfaction in knowing that ecosystem services, including cultural services, exist or can be passed on to future generations.70 Sources: Sumaila (2015), Interwies (2011), Interwies and Görlitz (2013).
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From collection: The Socio-Economics of the West, Central and Southern African Coastal Communities