The Barcelona Convention now has a total of seven associated Protocols: • The Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft or Incineration at Sea (Dumping Protocol, adopted 1976, in force 1978, amended 1995), • The Protocol concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency (Emergency Protocol, adopted 1976, in force 1978), replaced by the Protocol concerning Cooperation in Preventing Pollution from Ships and, in Cases of Emergency, Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea (Prevention and Emergency Protocol, adopted 2002, in force 2004), • The Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities (LBS Protocol, adopted 1980, in force 1983; amended 1996, in force 2008), • The Protocol Concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas (SPA Protocol, adopted 1982, in force 1986) replaced by The Protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean (SPA & Biodiversity Protocol, adopted 1995, in force 1999), • Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution Resulting from Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the Seabed and its Subsoil (Offshore Protocol, adopted 1994, in force 2011), • Protocol on the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Hazardous Wastes Protocol, adopted 1996, in force 2008), • Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM Protocol, adopted 2008, in force 2011). Out of these seven Protocols only the 1995 amendment of the Dumping Protocol is not in force nowadays. In fact in 2011 two very important Protocols, the Offshore Protocol and the ICZM Protocol came into force. The ICZM Protocol provides for better coordination, integration and holistic management of human activities in the coastal zones where understanding and taking into account the ecosystems is essential prerequisite of sustainable development.
From collection: State of the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal Environment