Demand for land for production of biomass for energy is putting increasing pressure on forests. Energy security concerns, high oil prices and climate mitigation policies aimed at replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy, have all led to a greater interest in biofuels. The transport sector is using increasing quantities of ethanol, mainly produced from sugar cane, corn and cassava, as a substitute for petrol (gasoline), and biodiesel, produced from plantation crops such as oil palm, coconuts and avocados. Fuel ethanol production tripled between 2000 and 2007, mainly in the United States and Brazil, while biodiesel output expanded even more rapidly over the same period, from less than 1 billion to almost 11 billion litres per year (IEA 2004). The liquid biofuel market has been stimulated by growing demand in particular in China and Brazil, and by recent and anticipated legislation in the US and Europe that sets ambitious goals for this sector.
From collection: Vital Forest Graphics
Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre