Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry

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Alcamo, J., E. Kreileman, J. Bollen, G.J. van den Born, R. Gerlagh, M. Krol, S. Toet, and B. de Vries, 1996: Baseline global changes in the 21st century: baseline scenarios of global environmental change. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions, 6(4), 261-303.

Alcamo, J., R. Leemans, and E. Kreileman, 1998: Global change scenarios of the 21st century. Results from the IMAGE 2.1 model. Elsevier Science Publishers, London, United Kingdom, 1998, 287 pp.

Alexandrov, G.A., Y. Yamagata, and T. Oikawa, 1999: Towards a model for projecting net ecosystem production of the world forests. Ecological Modelling, 123, 183-191.

Brown, S., J. Sathaye, M. Cannell, and P. Kauppi, 1996: Management of forests for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 773-797.

Cannell, M.G.R., R.C. Dewar, and D.G. Pyatt, 1993: Conifer plantations on drained peatlands in Britain: a net gain or loss of carbon? Forestry, 66, 353-369.

Cramer, W.P. and A.M. Solomon, 1993: Climatic classification and future distribution of global agricultural land. Climate Research, 3, 97-110.

Dixon, R.K., S. Brown, R.A. Houghton, A.M. Solomon, M.C. Trexler, and J. Wisniewski, 1994: Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 263, 185-190.

FAO, 1995: Forest Resource Assessment 1990, Tropical Forest Plantation Resources. Forestry Paper 128, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 90 pp.

FAO, 1996: Forest Resource Assessment Programme 1990, Survey of Tropical Forest Cover and Study of Change Processes. Forestry Paper 130, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 152 pp.

FAO, 1997: State of the World's Forests. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 200 pp.

FAO, 1998: Forest Resource Assessment Programme. Working Paper 1, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 18 pp.

FAO, 1999: State of the World's Forests. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 154 pp.

FAO, 2000: Alberto DelLungo, personal communication, 11 May 2000.

FCCC, 1998a: FCCC/CP/1998/L.5, Matters Related to the Kyoto Protocol; Matters Related to Decision 1/CP.3, Paragraph 5, Land-Use Change and Forestry. Available at:

FCCC, 1998b: FCCC/CP/1998/16 Add. 1, Report of the Conference of the Parties on Its Fourth Session, held at Buenos Aires from 2 to 14 November 1998. Addendum. Part Two: Action Taken by the Conference of the Parties at Its Fourth Session. Available at:

FCCC, 1999: On-line searchable database of GHG inventory data (updated September 1999). Available at:

Fearnside, P.M. 1996: Socio-economic factors in the management of tropical forests for carbon. In: Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management, and the Global Carbon Cycle [Apps, M.J. and D.T. Price (eds.)]. NATO ASI Series, Subseries I: Global Environmental Change, Vol. 40, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 349-361.

Ford-Robertson, J., K. Robertson, and P. Maclaren, 1999: Modelling the effect of land-use practices on greenhouse-gas emissions and sinks in New Zealand. Environmental Science and Policy, 2, 135-144.

Harmon, M.E., J.F. Franklin, F.J. Swanson, P. Sollins, S.V. Gregory, J.D. Lattin, N.H. Anderson, S.P. Cline, N.G. Aumen, J.R. Sedell, G.W. Lienkaemper, K. Cromack, and K.W. Cummins, 1986: Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research, 15, 133-302.

Harmon, M.E., S.L. Graman, and W.K. Ferrell, 1996: Modeling historical patterns of tree ulitisation in the Pacific Northwest: carbon sequestration implications. Ecological Applications, 6, 641-652.

Hamilton, C. and L. Vellen, 1999: Land-use change in Australia and the Kyoto Protocol. Environmental Science and Policy, 2, 145-152.

Heywood, V.H. (ed.), 1995: Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1140 pp.

Houghton, R.A., 1999: The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850-1990. Tellus, 50B, 298-313.

IPCC, 1997: Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories [J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B. Lim, K. Tr�anton, I. Mamaty, Y. Bonduki, D.J. Griggs, B.A. Callander (eds.)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Meteorological Office, Bracknell, United Kingdom.
- Volume 1: Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting Instructions. 130 pp.
- Volume 2: Greenhouse Gas Inventory Workbook. 346 pp.
- Volume 3: Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reference Manual. 482 pp.

IPCC, 1999: Evaluating Approaches for Estimating Net Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Forest Harvesting and Wood Products [Brown, S., B. Lim, and B. Schlamadinger (eds.)]. IPCC Meeting Report, May 1998, Dakar, Senegal. International Panel on Climate Change/Organization for Ecomonic and Commercial Development/International Energy Agency Programme on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, 51 pp.

Izrael, Y.A., S.I. Avdjushin, I.M. Nazarov, A.O. Kokorin, A.I. Nakhutin, A.F. Yakovlev, and Y.A. Anokhin, 1999: Russian Federation Climate Change Country Study (cooperative agreement DE-FCO2-93PO10118). Task 6. Climate Change Action Plan Report. Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environment Monitoring, Moscow, Russia, 125 pp.

Karjalainen, T., J. Liski, A. Pussinen, and T. Lapvetel�inen, 1999: Sinks in the Kyoto Protocol and Considerations for Ongoing Work in the UNFCCC Work. The Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark, (in press).

Kirilenko, A.P. and A.M. Solomon, 1998: Modeling dynamic vegetation response to rapid climate change using bioclimatic classification. Climatic Change, 38, 15-49.

Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 2000: What contribution can tree plantations make towards meeting Australia's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol? Environmental Science and Policy, (in press).

Laine, J., J. Silvola, K. Tolonen, J. Alm, H. Nyk�nen, H. Vasander, T. Sallantaus, I. Savolainen, J. Sinisalo, and P.J. Martikainen, 1996: Effect of water-level drawdown on global climatic warming:northern peatlands. Ambio, 25(3), 179-184.

Leemans, R., R. E. Kreileman, G. Zuidema, J. Alcamo, M. Berk, G. J. van den Born, M. den Elzen, R. Hootsmans, M. Janssen, M. Schaeffer, S. Toet, and B. de Vries, 1998: The IMAGE User Support System: Global Change Scenarios from IMAGE 2.1. RIVM publication 4815006, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands, CD-ROM.

Liski, J., T. Karjalainen, G.J. Nabuurs, A. Pussinen, and P. Kauppi, 2000: Trees as carbon sinks and sources in the European Union. Environmental Science and Policy, (in press).

Lund, G., 1999: A 'forest' by any other name.. Environmental Science and Policy, 2(2), 125-134.

Lund, G., 2000: Definitions of Forest, Deforestation, Afforestation, and Reforestation. Available at:

M�kip��, R. and E. Tomppo, 1998: Suomen mets�t ovat hiilinielu-vaikka Kioton ilmastosopimuksen mukaan muulta n�ytt��. Mets�tieteen aikakausikirja. Folia Forestalia, 2, 268-274. (in Finnish).

Mantovani, A.C.M. and A.W. Setzer, 1997. Deforestation detection in the Amazon using an AVHRR-based system. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 18(2), 273-286.

Marland, G. and B. Schlamadinger, 1999: The Kyoto Protocol could make a difference for the optimal forest-based CO2 mitigation strategy, Environmental Science and Policy, 2(2), 111-124.

Micales, J.A. and K.E. Skog, 1997: The disposition of forest products in landfills. International Biodeterioration and Degradation, 39(2-3), 145-158.

Myers, N. 1997: The world's forests and their ecosystem services. In: Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems [Daily, G.C. (ed.)]. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 215-235.

Nabuurs, G.J. and G.M.J. Mohren, 1995: Modelling analyses of potential carbon sequestration in selected forest types. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, 1,157-1,172.

Nabuurs, G.J., A.V. Dolman, E. Verkaik, P.J. Kuikman, C.A. van Diepen, A. Whitmore, W. Daamen, O. Oenema, P. Kabat, and G.M.J. Mohren, 2000: Article 3.3 and 3.4. of the Kyoto Protocol: consequences for industrialised countries' commitment, the monitoring needs and possible side effect. Environmental Science and Policy, 00(2000): 1-12, (in press).

Nemani, R. and S. Running, 1997: Land cover characterization using multitemporal Red, Near-IR and Thermal-IR data from NOAA/AVHRR. Ecological Applications, 7(1), 79-90.

NGGI, 1999: National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1997 with Methodology Supplements. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee, Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia, 202 pp.

Nilsson, S. and W. Schopfhauser, 1995: The carbon-sequestration potential of a global afforestation program. Climatic Change, 30, 267-293.

O'Connell, A.M. and K.V. Sankaran, 1997: Organic matter accretion, decomposition and mineralization. In: Management of Soil, Nutrients and Water in Tropical Plantation Forests [E.K. Sadanandan Nambiar and A.G. Brown (eds.)]. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Monograph No. 43, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, Australia, pp. 443-480.

Olson, J.S., J.A.Watts, and L.J. Allison, 1983: Carbon in Live Vegetation of Major World Ecosystems. ORNL-5862, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 152 pp.

Pisarenko, A., G. Redok, and M. Merzlenko, 1992: Artificial Forests, Vol. 1. Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 307 pp. (in Russian)

RFFS, 1998: Basic Indicators of Activities of the Federal Forest Service of Russia in 1998, 1992-1997. Federal Forest Service of Russia, Moscow, 233 pp. (in Russian)

Robinson, B.C.E., W.A. Kurz, and C. Pinkman, 1999: Estimating the Carbon Losses from Deforestation in Canada. Report prepared by ESSA Technologies Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia, for the National Climate Change Secretariat, Ottowa, Ontario, Canada, 81 pp.

Ruhiyat, D., 1995: Estimasi Biomasa Tegakan Hutan Hujan Tropika di Kalimantan Timur. Lokakarya Inventarisasi Emisi dan Rosot Gas Rumah Kaca, Bogor : 4-5 Agustus 1995. Bogor Agricultural University and Ministry of Environment, Republic of Indonesia, Bogor and Jakarta, Indonesia, 15 pp. (in Indonesian)

Schlamadinger, B. and G. Marland, 1998: The Kyoto Protocol: provisions and unresolved issues relevant to land-use change and forestry. Environmental Science and Policy, 1, 313-327.

Solomon, A.M., N.H. Ravindranath, R.B. Stewart, S. Nilsson, and M. Weber, 1996: Wood production under changing climate and land use. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 487-510.

Stork, N.E., 1997: Measuring global biodiversity and its decline. In: Biodiversity II [Readka-Kudla, M.L., D.E. Wilson, and E.O. Wilson (eds.)]. John Henry Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 41-68.

UN, 1999: Forest Resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand (industrialized temperate/boreal countries), UN-ECE/FAO Contribution to the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. United Nations, New York, NY, USA and Geneva, Switzerland, (in press).

UN-ECE/FAO, 1992: The Forest Resources of the Temperate Zones. The UN-ECE/FAO 1990 Forest Resource Assessment. Vol. 1, General Forest Resource Information. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. ECE/TIM/62. UN Publ. No. E.92.II.E.27, 348 pp.

U.S. Forest Service, 2000a: Fax sent by USFS to UN-ECE/FAO (K. Prins), 2 May 2000.

U.S. Forest Service, 2000b: Personal communication with B. Stokes/USFS, 9 May 2000.

Yamagata, Y. and G.A. Alexandrov, 1999: Political implication of defining carbon sinks under the Kyoto Protocol. World Resource Review, 11(3), 346-359.

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