Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry

Other reports in this collection


Aubinet, M., A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, �. Rannik, J. Moncrieff, T. Foken, A.S. Kowalski, P.H. Martin, P. Berbigier, C. Bernhofer, R. Clement, J. Elbers, A. Granier, T. Gr�nwald, K. Morgenstern, K. Pilegaard, C. Rebmann, W. Snijders, R. Valentini, and T. Vesala, 2000: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: The EUROFLUX Methodology. Advances in Ecological Research, 30, 113-175.

Baldocchi, D.D., C.A. Vogel, and B. Hall, 1997: Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange rates above and below a boreal jack pine forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 83, 147-170.

Barnola, J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander, and B. Stauffer, 1995: CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice, Tellus, 47B, 264-272.

Battle, M., M. Bender, T. Sowers, P.P. Tans, J.H. Butler, J.W. Elkins, J.T. Ellis, T. Conway, N. Zhang, P. Lang, and A.D. Clarke, 1996: Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole. Nature, 383, 231-235.

Beare, M.H., P.F. Hendrix, and D.C. Coleman, 1994: Water-stable aggregates and organic matter fractions in conventional- and no-tillage soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58, 777-786.

Bergh, J. and S. Linder, 1999: Effects of soil warming during spring on photosynthetic recovery in boreal Norway spruce stands. Global Change Biology, 5, 245-253.

Bergh, J., R.E. McMurtrie, and S. Linder, 1998: Climatic factors controlling the productivity of Norway spruce: a model-based analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 110, 125-139.

Bergh, J., S. Linder, T. Lundmark, and B. Elfving, 1999: The effect of water and nutrient availability on the productivity of Norway spruce in northern and southern Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 119, 51-62.

Black, T.A., G. den Hartog, H. Neumann, P. Blanken, P. Yang, Z. Nesic, S. Chen, C. Russel, P. Voroney, and R. Stabeler, 1996: Annual cycles of CO2 and water vapour fluxes above and within a boreal aspen stand. Global Change Biology, 2, 219-230.

Blanken, P.D., T.A. Black, H.H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, P.C. Yang, Z. Nesic, R. Staebler, W. Chen, and M.D. Novak, 1998: Turbulent flux measurements above and below the overstory of a boreal aspen forest. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 89, 109-140.

Blume, H.P., H. Eger, E. Fleischhauer, A. Hebel, C. Reij, and K.G. Steiner (eds.), 1998: Towards sustainable land use. Advances in Geoecology, 31, 1625 pp.

Boone, R.D., K.J. Nadelhoffer, J.D. Canary, and J.P. Kaye, 1998: Roots exert a strong influence on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Nature, 396, 570-572.

Bousquet, P., P. Ciais, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, and P. Monfray, 1999: Inverse modelling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 1. Method and control inversion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 26161-26178.

Braswell, B.H., D.S. Schimel, E. Linder, and B. Moore III, 1997: The response of global terrestrial ecosystems to interannual temperature variability. Science, 278, 870-872.

British Petroleum Company, 1999: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 1999. British Petroleum Company, London, United Kingdom.

Brown, S. and A.E. Lugo, 1982: The storage and production of organic matter in tropical forests and their role in the global carbon cycle. Biotropica, 14, 161-187.

Buchmann, N. and E.-D.Schulze, 1999: Net CO2 and H2O fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 751-760.

Cannell, M.G.R., R.C. Dewar, and D.G. Pyatt, 1993: Conifer plantations on drained peat in Britain: A net gain or loss of carbon? Forestry, 66, 353-369.

Cannell, M.G.R., R. Milne, K.J. Hargreaves, T.A.W. Brown, M.M. Cruickshank, R.I. Bradley, T. Spencer, D. Hope, M.F. Billett, W.N. Adger, and S. Subak, 1999: National inventories of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks, the UK experience. Climatic Change, 42, 505-530.

Cao, M. and F.I. Woodward, 1998: Dynamic responses of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling to global climate change. Nature, 393, 249-252.

Chappelaz, J., I.Y. Fung, and A.M. Thomson, 1993: The atmospheric CH4 increase since the last glacial maximum: (1) sources estimates, Tellus, 45B, 228-241.

Chen, W.J., T.A. Black, P.C. Yang, A.G. Barr, H.H. Neumann, Z. Nesic, P.D. Blanken, M.D. Novak, J. Eley, R.J. Ketler, and R. Cuenca, 1999: Effects of climatic variability on the annual carbon sequestration by a boreal aspen forest. Global Change Biology, 5, 41-53.

Ciais, P., 1999: Restless carbon pools. Nature, 398, 111-112.

Ciais, P., P.P. Tans, J.W. White, M. Trolier, R. Francey, J. Berry, D. Randall, P. Sellers, J. Collatz, and D.S. Schimel, 1995a: Partitioning of the ocean and land uptake of CO2 from delta 13C measurements from the NOAA/CMDL global air sampling network. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(D3), 5051-5057.

Ciais, P., P.P. Tans, M. Trolier, J.W.C. White, and R.J. Francey. 1995b: A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science, 269, 1017-1188.

Cole, C.V. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, A.K. Metherell, D.S. Ojima, W.J. Parton. 1993: Analysis of agroecosystems carbon pools. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 70, 357-371.

Cole, C.V., C. Cerri, K. Minami, A. Mosier, N. Rosenberg, D. Sauerbeck, J. Dumanski, J. Duxbury, J. Freney, R. Gupta, O. Heinemeyer, T. Kolchugina, J. Lee, K. Paustian, D. Powlson, N. Sampson, H. Tiessen, M. Van Noordwijk, Q. Zhao, I.P. Abrol, T. Barnwell, C.A. Campbell, R.L. Desjardin, C. Feller, P. Garin, M.J. Glendining, E.G. Gregorich, D. Johnson, J. Kimble, R. Lal, C. Monreal, D.S. Ojima, M. Padgett, W. Post, W. Sombroek, C. Tarnocai, T. Vinson, S. Vogel, and G. Ward, 1996: Agricultural options for mitigation of greenhouse gas wmissions. In: Climate Change 1995-Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 745-771.

Conrad, R., W. Seiler, and G. Bunse, 1983: Factor influencing the loss of fertilizers nitrogen, emission of nitrogen into the atmosphere as N2O. Journal of Geophysical Research, 88, 6709-6718.

Conway, T.J., P.P. Tans, L.S. Waterman, K.W. Thoning, D.R. Kitzis, K.A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, 1994: Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99(D11), 22831-22855.

Cramer, W., A. Bondeau, F.I. Woodward, F.I., I.C. Prentice, R.A. Betts, V. Brovkin, P.M. Cox, V. Fisher, J.A. Foley, A.D. Friend, C. Kucharik, M.R. Lomas, N. Ramankutty, S. Sitch, B. Smith, A. White, and C. Young-Molling, 2000: Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology, (in press).

Curtis, P.S. 1996: A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and nitrogen in trees grown under elevated carbon dioxide. Plant, Cell and Environment, 19, 127-137.

Curtis, P.S. and Wang, X., 1998: A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia, 113, 299-313.

Davidson, E.A., 1991: Fluxes of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from terrestrial ecosystems. In: Microbial Production and Consumption of Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrous Oxide and Halomethanes [Rogers, J.E. and W.B. Witman (eds.)]. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 219-235.

Davidson, E.A., 1992: Sources of nitrous oxide following wetting of dry soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 95-102.

De Fries, R.S., C.B. Field, I. Fung, G.J. Collatz, and L. Bounoua, 1999: Combining satellite data and biogeochemical models to estimate global effects of human-induced land cover change on carbon emissions and primary productivity. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 803-815.

Detwiler, R.P., 1986: Land use change and the global carbon cycle: The role of tropical soils. Biogeochemistry, 2, 67-93.

Dewar, R.C., B.E. Medlyn, and R.E. McMurtrie, 1999: Acclimation of the respiration/photosynthesis ratio to temperature: insights from a model. Global Change Biology, 5, 615-622.

Dixon, R.K., S. Brown, R.A. Houghton, A.M. Solomon, M.C. Trexler, and J. Wisniewski, 1994a: Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 263, 185-190.

Dixon, R., J. Winjum, K. Andrasko, J. Lee, and P. Schroeder, 1994b: Integrated systems: assessment of promising agroforest and alternative land-use practices to enhance carbon conservation and sequestration. Climatic Change, 30, 1-23.

Dlugokencky, E.J., K.A. Masarie, P.M. Lang, and P.P. Tans, 1998: Continuing decline in the growth rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature, 393, 447-450.

Eamus, D., L.B. Hutley, and A.P. O'Grady, n.d.: Daily and Seasonal Patterns of Carbon and Water Fluxes Above a North Australian Savanna, unpublished manuscript.

Edmonds, J.A., M.A. Wise, R.D. Sands, R.A. Brown, and H.S. Kheshgi, 1996: Agriculture, Land Use, and Commercial Biomass Energy: A Preliminary Integrated Analysis of the Potential Role of Biomass Energy for Reducing Future Greenhouse Related Emissions. Research Report PNNL-111555, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA.

Eklund, T.J., W.H. McDowell, and C.M. Pringle, 1997: Seasonal variation of tropical precipitation chemistry: La Selva, Costa Rica. Atmospheric Environment, 23, 3903-3910.

Elliott, E.T., 1986: Aggregate structure and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in native and cultivated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50, 627-633.

Ellsworth, D.S., 1999: CO2 enrichment in a maturing pine forest: are CO2 exchange and water status in the canopy affected? Plant, Cell and Environment, 22, 461-472.

Enting, I.G., T.M.L. Wigley, and M. Heimann (eds.), 1994: Future emissions and concentrations of carbon dioxide: Key ocean/atmosphere/land analyses. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Division of Atmospheric Research, Technical Paper No. 31, Melbourne, Australia, 120 pp.

Etheridge, D.M., G.I. Pearman, and P.J. Fraser, 1992: Changes in tropospheric methane between 1841 and 1978 from a high accumulation rate Antarctic ice core. Tellus, 44, 282-294.

Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, and V.I. Morgan, 1996: Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 4115-4128.

Fan, S.-M., S.C. Wofsy, P.S. Bakwin,. and D.J. Jacob, 1990: Atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2 and O3 in the central Amazon forest. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 16851-16864.

Fan, S., M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, 1998: A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models. Science, 282, 442-446.

FAO, 1993: 1992 Production Yearbook. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Fearnside, P.M., 2000: Global warming and tropical land-use change: greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning, decomposition and soils in forest conversion, shifting cultivation and secondary vegetation. Climatic Change, (in press).

Fearnside, P.M. and R.I. Barbosa, 1998: Soil carbon changes from conversion of forest to pasture in Brazilian Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 108, 147-166.

Fearnside, P.M. and W.M. Guimar�es, 1996: Carbon uptake by secondary forests in Brazilian Amazonia, Forest Ecology and Management, 80, 35-46.

Feely, R.A., R. Wanninkhof, T. Takahashi, and P.P. Tans, 1999: Influence of El Ni�o on the equatorial Pacific contribution to atmospheric CO2 accumulation, Nature, 398, 597-601.

Forti, M.C. and L.M. Moeira-Nordemann, 1991: Rainwater and throughfall chemistry and in a "Terra Firme" rain forest: Central Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, 7415-7421.

Francey, R.J., P.P. Tans, C.E. Allison, I.G. Enting, J.W.C. White, and M. Trolier, 1995: Changes in oceanic and carbon uptake since 1982. Nature, 373, 326-330.

Freydier, F., R. Dupret, and J.P. Lacaux, 1998: Precipitation chemistry in intertropical Africa. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 749-765.

Friend, A.D., A.K. Stevens, R.G. Knox, and M.G.R. Cannell, 1997: A process-based, terrestrial biosphere model of ecosystem dynamics (Hybrid v3.0). Ecological Modelling, 95, 249-287.

Fung, I., J. John, J. Lerner, E. Matthews, M. Prather, L.P. Steele, and P.J. Fraser, 1991: Three dimensional model synthesis of the global methane cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, 13033-13065.

Gaudry, A., P. Monfray, G. Polian, and G. Lambert, 1987: The 1982-83 El Ni�o: a 6 billion ton CO2 release. Tellus, 39B, 209-213.

Goulden, M.L., J.W. Munger, S-M. Fan, B. Daube, and S.C. Wofsy, 1996a: Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: response to interannual climate variability. Science, 271, 1576-1578.

Goulden, M.L., J.W. Munger, S.M. Fan, B.C. Daube, and S.C. Wofsy, 1996b: Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy. Global Change Biology, 2, 169-182.

Goulden, M.L., S.C. Wofsy, J.W. Harden, S.E. Trumbore, P.M. Crill, S.T. Gower, T. Fries, B.C. Daube, S.M. Fan, D.J. Sutton, A. Bazzaz, and J.W. Munger, 1998: Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw. Science, 279, 214-217.

Gower, S.T., J.G. Vogel, J.M. Norman, C.J. Kucharik, S.J. Steele, and T.K. Stow, 1997: Carbon distribution and aboveground net primary production in aspen, jack pine, and black spruce stands in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 29029-029041.

Grace, J., J. Lloyd, J. McIntyre, A.C. Miranda, P. Meir, H. Miranda, J.B. Moncrieff, J. Massheder, I.R. Wright, and J. Gash, 1995a: Fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor over an undisturbed tropical rainforest in south-west Amazonia. Global Change Biology, 1, 1-12.

Grace, J., J. Lloyd, J. McIntyre, A.C. Miranda, P. Meir, H. Miranda, C. Nobre, J.B. Moncrieff, J. Massheder, Y. Malhi, I.R. Wright, and J. Gash, 1995b: Carbon dioxide uptake by an undisturbed tropical rain forest in South-West Amazonia 1992-1993. Science, 270, 778-780.

Greco, S., and D.D. Baldocchi, 1996: Seasonal variation of CO2 and water vapor exchange rates over a temperate deciduous forest. Global Change Biology, 2, 183-198.

Gustavsson, L., P. B�rjesson, B. Johansson, and P. Svenningsson, 1995: Reducing CO2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels. Energy, 20, 1097-1113.

H�ttenschwiler, S., F. Miglietta, A. Raschi, and C. K�rner, 1997: Thirty years of in situ tree growth under elevated CO2, a model for future forest responses. Global Change Biology, 3, 463-471.

Hall, D.O., H. Mynick, and R. Williams, 1991: Cooling the greenhouse with bioenergy. Nature, 353, 11-12.

Hanan, N.P., P. Kabat, A.J. Dolman, and J.A. Elbers, 1998: Photosynthesis and carbon balance of a Sahelian fallow savanna. Global Change Biology, 4, 523-538.

Harvey, L.D.D., J. Gregory, M. Hoffert, A. Jain, M. Lal, R. Leemans, S.C.B. Raper, T.M.L. Wigley, and J.R. de Wolde, 1997: An Introduction to Simple Climate Models Used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report. IPCC Technical Paper, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Bracknell, United Kingdom, 250 pp.

Havranek, W.H. and W. Tranquillini, 1995: Physiological processes during winter dormancy and their ecological significance. In: Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests [Smith, W.K. and T.M. Hinckley (eds.)]. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom, pp. 95-124.

Heimann, M., G. Esser, J. Kaduk, D. Kicklighter, G. Kohlmaier, D. McGuire, B. Moore III, C. Prentice, W. Sauf, A. Schloss, U. Wittenberg, and G. W�rth, 1997: Interannual variability of CO2 exchanges fluxes as simulated by four terrestrial biogeochemical models (AB0179). In: Fifth International Carbon Dioxide Conference, edited by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Cairns, Australia, pp. 129-130.

Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.), 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 572 pp.

Houghton, R.A., 1991: Tropical deforestation and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Climate Change, 19, 99-118.

Houghton, R.A., 1994: The worldwide extent of land-use change. BioScience, 44, 305-313.

Houghton, R.A., 1999: The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850-1990. Tellus, 50B, 298-313.

Houghton, R.A. J.L. Hackler, and K.T. Lawrence, 1999: The U.S. carbon budget: contributions from land-use change. Science, 285, 574-578.

Houghton, R.A., D.L. Skole, C.A. Nobre, J.L. Hackler, K.T. Lawrence, and W.H. Chomentowski, 2000: Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature, 403, 301-304.

House, J.I. and D.O. Hall, 2000: Net primary production of savannas and tropical grasslands. In: Terrestrial Global Productivity: Past, Present and Future [Mooney, H., J. Roy, and B. Saugier (eds.)]. (in press).

Hutchinson, G.L., 1995: Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of gases. In: Soils and Global Change [Lal, R., J. Kimble, E. Levine, and B. Stewart (eds.)]. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, United Kingdom, pp. 219-236.

Inderm�hle, A., T.F. Stocker, F. Joos, H. Fisher, H.J. Smith, M. Wahlen, B. Deck, D. Mastroaianni, J. Tschumi, T. Blunier, R. Meyer, and B. Stauffer, 1999: Holocene carbon cycle dynamics based on CO2 trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Nature, 398, 121-126.

Ishitani, H., T.B. Johansson, and S. Al-Khouli: 1996: Energy supply. In: Climate Change 1995: Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 587-647.

Jain, A.K., H.S. Kheshgi, M.I. Hoffert, and D.J. Wuebbles, 1995: Distribution of radiocarbon as a test of global carbon cycle models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 153-166.

Jarvis, P.G., 1981: Production efficiency of coniferous forest in the UK. In: Physiological Processes Limiting Plant Productivity [Johnson, C.B. (ed.)]. Butterworth Scientific Publications, London, United Kingdom, pp. 81-107.

Jarvis, P.G. (ed.), 1998: European Forests and Global Change, the Likely Impacts of Rising CO2 and Temperature. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 380 pp.

Jarvis, P.G., J.M. Massheder, S.E. Hale, J.B. Moncrieff, M. Rayment, and S. Scott, 1997: Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy exchanges of a boreal black spruce forest. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 28953-28966.

Johansson, J. and U. Lundqvist, 1999: Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply. Biomass and Bioenergy, 17, 85-93.

Johnson, D.W., 1992: Effects of forest management on soil carbon storage. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 64, 83-120.

Joos, F., R. Meyer, M. Bruno, and M. Leuenberger, 1999: The variability in the carbon sinks as reconstructed for the last 1000 years. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 1437-1441.

Kauppi, P.E., K. Mielk�inen, and K. Kuusela, 1992: Biomass and carbon budget of European forests, 1971 to 1990, Science, 256, 70-74.

Keeling, C.D. and T.P. Whorf, 1999: Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

Keeling, C.D., J.F.S. Chin, and T.P. Whorf, 1996a: Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Nature, 382, 146-149.

Keeling, R.F., S.C. Piper, and M. Heimann, 1996b: Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentrations. Nature, 381, 218-221.

Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, A.F. Carter, S.C. Piper, T.P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W.G. Mook, and H.A. Roeloffzen. 1989: A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 1. analysis of observational data. In: Geophysical Monographs, 55, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 165-236.

Kern, J. and M. Johnson, 1993: Conservation tillage impacts on national soil and atmospheric carbon levels. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57, 200-210.

Khalil, M.A.K. and R.A. Rasmussen, 1992: The global sources and sinks of nitrous oxide. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 14651-14658.

Kheshgi, H.S., A.K. Jain, and D.J. Wuebbles, 1999: Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 31127-31144.

Kindermann, J., G. W�rth, G.H. Kohlmaier, and F.-W. Badeck, 1996: Interannual variation of carbon exchange flux in terrestrial ecosystems, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 737-755.

Krankina, O.N., M.E. Harmon, and A.V. Griazkin, 1999: Nutrient stores and dynamics of woody detritus in a boreal forest: modeling potential implications at the stand level. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29, 20-32.

Kroeze, C., A. Mosier, and L. Bouwman, 1999: Closing the global N2O budget: a retrospective analysis 1500-1994, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 1-8.

Lal, R., J.M. Kimble, R.F. Follett, and C.V. Cole. 1998: The Potential of U.S. Cropland to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MI, USA, 128 pp.

Lee, J., D. Phillips, and R. Liu, 1993: The effect of trends in tillage practices on erosion and carbon content of soils in the US corn belt. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 70, 389-401.

Lee, K., R. Wanninkhof, T. Takahashi, S.C. Doney, and D. Feely, 1998: Low interannual variability in recent oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature, 396, 155-159.

Leemans, R., A. van Amstel, C. Battjes, E. Kreileman, and S. Toet, 1996: The land cover and carbon cycle consequences of biomass as an energy source. Global Environmental Change, 6, 335-357.

Le Qu�r�, C., J.C. Orr, and P. Monfray, 1998: Modeling the inter-annual variability of the air to sea flux of carbon dioxide in the years 1979-1993. Proceedings of the International CO2 Conference, Cairns, Australia.

Linder, S., 1995: Foliar analysis for detecting and correcting nutrient imbalances in Norway spruce. Ecological Bulletins (Copenhagen), 44, 178-190.

Linder, S., R.E. McMurtrie, and J.J. Landsberg, 1996: Global change impacts on managed forests. In: Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems [Walker, B. and W. Steffen (eds.)]. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Book Series No. 2, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 275-290.

Linder, S. and D.A. Rook, 1984: Effects of mineral nutrition on carbon dioxide exchange and partitioning of carbon in trees. In: Nutrition of Plantation Forests [Bowen, G.D. and E.K.S. Nambiar (eds.)]. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom, pp. 212-236.

Lindroth, A., A. Grelle, and A.S. Mor�n, 1998: Long-term measurements of boreal forest carbon balance reveal large temperature sensitivity. Global Change Biology, 4, 443-450.

Lloyd, J., M.I. Bird, E. Veenendaal, and B. Kruijt, n.d.: Should Phosphorus Availability Be Constraining Moist Tropical Forest Responses to Increasing CO2 Concentrations? unpublished manuscript.

Lugo, A. and S. Brown, 1993: Management of tropical soils as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon. Plant and Soil, 149, 27-41.

Macedo, C., 1998: Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances in bio-ethanol production and utilization in Brazil. Biomass and Energy, 14, 77-81.

Malhi, Y., A.D. Nobre, J. Grace, B. Kruijt, M.G.P. Pereira, A. Culf, and S. Scott, 1998: Carbon dioxide transfer over a Central Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Geophysical Research, D24, 31593-31612.

Malhi, Y., D.D. Baldocchi, and P.G. Jarvis, 1999: The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forests. Plant, Cell and Environment 22, 715-740.

Marland, G. and B. Schlamadinger, 1995: Biomass fuels and forest-management strategies: How do we calculate the greenhouse-gas emissions benefits? Energy-The International Journal, 20, 1131-1140.

Marland, G., R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, C. Johnston, and A. Brenkert, 1999: Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emission Estimates from Fossil Fuel Burning, Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 1751-1996. Report NDP-030, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

McCaughey, J.H., P.M. Lafleur, D.W. Joiner, P.A. Bartlett, A.M. Costello, D.E. Jelinski, and M.G. Ryan, 1997: Magnitudes of seasonal patterns or energy, water and carbon exchanges at boreal young jack pine forest in the BOREAS northern study area. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 28997-29009.

McMurtrie, R.E., B.E. Medlyn, and R.C. Dewar, n.d.: Increased Understanding of Nutrient Immobilisation in Soil Organic Matter Is Critical for Predicting the Carbon Sink Strength of Forest Ecosystems Over the Next 100 Years, unpublished manuscript.

McMurtrie, R.E. and J.J. Landsberg, 1992: Using a simulation model to evaluate the effects of water and nutrients on growth and carbon partitioning of Pinus radiata. Forest Ecology and Management, 52, 243-260.

Medlyn, B.E., F-W. Badeck, D.G.G. de Pury, C.V.M. Barton, M. Broadmeadow, R. Ceulemans, P. de Angelis, M. Forstreuter, M.E. Jach, S. Kellom�ki, E. Laitat, M. Marek, S. Philippot, A. Rey, J. Strassemeyer, K. Laitinen, R. Liozon, B. Portier, P. Roberntz, Y.P. Wang, and P.G. Jarvis, 2000: Effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis in European forest species: A meta-analysis of model parameters. Plant, Cell and Environment, 22, 1475-1495.

Melillo, J.M., I.C. Prentice, G.D. Farquhar, E.-D. Schulze, and O.E. Sala, 1996: Terrestrial biotic responses to environmental change and feedbacks to climate. In: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 445-481.

Menzel, A., and P. Fabian, 1999: Growing season extended in Europe. Nature, 397, 659.

Meybeck, M., 1982: Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus transport by world rivers. American Journal of Science, 282, 401-450.

Minkkinen, K. and J. Laine, 1998: Long-term effect of forest drainage on the peat carbon stores of pine mires in Finland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, 1267-1275.

Mooney, H.A., J. Canadell, F.S. Chapin III, J.R. Ehleringer, C. K�rner, R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, L.F. Pitelka, and E.-D. Schulze, 1999: Ecosystem physiology responses to global change. In: Implications of Global Change for Natural and Managed Ecosystems. A Synthesis of GCTE and Related Research [Walker, B.H., W.L. Steffen, J. Canadell, and J.S.I. Ingram (eds.)]. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Book Series No. 4, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 141-189.

Myneni, R.B., C.D. Keeling, C.J. Tucker, G. Asrar, and R.R. Nemani, 1997: Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981-1991. Nature, 386, 698-702.

Nabuurs, G.J. and G.M.J. Mohren, 1993: Carbon Fixation Through Forestation Activities. IBN Research Report 93/4, Institute for Forestry and Nature Resources, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 205 pp.

Nadelhoffer, K.J., B.A. Emmett, P. Gundersen, O.J. Kjonaas, C.J. Koopmans, P. Schleppi, A. Tietema, and R.F. Wright, 1999: Nitrogen deposition makes a minor contribution to carbon sequestration in temperate forests. Nature, 398, 145-148.

Nilsson, S. and W. Schopfhauser 1995: The carbon-sequestration potential of a global afforestation program. Climatic Change, 30, 267-293.

Norby, R.J., S.D. Wullschleger, C.A. Gunderson, D.W. Johnson, and R. Ceulemans, 1999: Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell and Environment, 22, 683-714.

Parton, W.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, D.S. Ojima, D.S. Schimel, and D.O. Hall, 1995: Impact of climate change on grassland production and soil carbon worldwide. Global Change Biology, 1, 13-22.

Peterjohn, W.T., J.M. Melillo, P.A. Steudler, K.M. Newkirk, F.P. Bowles, and J.D. Aber, 1994: Response of trace gas fluxes and N availability to experimentally elevated soil temperatures. Ecological Applications, 43, 617-625.

Peterson, A.G., J.T. Ball, Y. Luo, C.B. Field, P.B. Reich, P.S. Curtis, K.L. Griffin, C.A. Gunderson, R.J. Norby, D.T. Tissue, M. Forstreuter, A. Rey, C.S. Vogel, and CMEAL Participants, 1999: The photosynthesis-leaf nitrogen relationship at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology, 5, 331-346.

Phillips, O.L., Y. Malhi, N. Higuchi, W.F. Laurance, R.M. N��ez, D.J.D. V�xquez, L.V. Laurance, S.G., Ferreira, M. Stern, S. Brown, and J. Grace, 1998: Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: evidence from long-term plots. Science, 282, 439-442.

Prasad, S.S., 1997: Potential atmospheric sources and sinks of nitrous oxide 2. Possibilities from exited O2 "embryonic" O3, and optically pumped exited O3. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 21527-21537.

Prather, M., R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, 1995: Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry. In: Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B.A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 73-126.

Prinn, R (ed.), 1994: Global Atmospheric-Biospheric Chemistry. Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA.

Pussinen, A., T. Karjalainen, S. Kellom�ki, and R. M�kip��, 1997: Contribution of the forest sector in carbon sequestration in Finland. Biomass and Bioenergy, 13, 377-387.

Ramankutty, N. and J.A. Foley, 1998: Characterizing patterns of global land use: an analysis of global croplands data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 667-685.

Randerson, J.T., M.V. Thompson, T.J. Conway, I.Y. Fung, and C.B. Field, 1997: The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 11, 535-560.

Rayment, M.B. and P.G. Jarvis, 2000: Long-term measurement of photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration of black spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, (in press).

Rayner, P.J., I.G. Enting, R.J. Francey, and R. Langenfelds, 2000: Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, d13C and O2/N2 observations. Tellus, (in press).

Rey, A. and P.G. Jarvis, 1997: An overview of long term effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the growth and physiology of birch (Betula pendula Roth.). Botanical Journal of Scotland, 49, 325-340.

Sarmiento, J.L. and E.T. Sundquist, 1992: Revised budget of the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Nature, 356, 589-593.

Saxe, H., D.S. Ellsworth, and J. Heath. 1998: Tansley Review No. 98. Tree and forest functioning in an enriched CO2 atmosphere. New Phytologist, 139, 395-436.

Schimel, D., I. Enting, M. Heimann, T. Wigley, D. Raynaud, D. Alves, and U. Siegenthaler, 1995: CO2 and the carbon cycle. In: Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B.A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 73-126.

Schimel, D., D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heimann, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K.P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, and D. Wuebbles, 1996: Radiative forcing of climate change. In: Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 65-131.

Schlesinger, W.H., 1997: Biogeochemistry and Analysis of Global Change (2nd ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 588 pp.

Scholes, R.J., 1999: Will the terrestrial carbon sink saturate soon? Global Change Newsletter, 37, 2-3.

Scholes, R.J., E.-D. Schulze, L.F. Pitelka, and D.O. Hall, 1998: Biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. In: Implications of Global Change for Natural and Managed Ecosystems: A Synthesis of GCTE and Related Research [Walker, B.H., W.L. Steffen, J. Canadell, and J.S.I. Ingram (eds.)]. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Book Series No. 4, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 271-303.

Schulze, E-D. and M. Heimann, 1998: Carbon and water exchange of terrestrial systems. In: Asian Change in the Context of Global Change [Galloway, J.N. and J. Melillo (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 145-161.

Schulze, E-D., J. Lloyd, F.M. Kelliher, C. Wirth, C. Rebmann, B. L�hker, M. Mund, I. Milukova, W. Schulze, A. Ziegler, A. Varlagin, R. Sogachov, S. Valentini, S. Dore, O. Grigoriev, O. Kolle, and N.N. Vygodskaya, 1999: Productivity of forests in the Eurosiberian boreal region and their potential to act as a carbon sink-a synthesis of existing knowledge and original data. Global Change Biology, 5, 703-722.

Sellers, P.J., F.G. Hall, R.D. Kelly, A. Black, D. Baldocchi, J. Berry, M. Ryan, K.J. Ranson, P.M. Crill, D.P. Lettenmaier, H. Margolis, J. Cihlar, J. Newcomer, D. Fitzjarrald, P.G. Jarvis, S.T. Gower, D. Halliwell, D. Williams, B. Goodison, D.E. Wickland, and F.E. Guertin, 1997: BOREAS in 1997: Experiment overview, scientific results, and future directions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 28731-28769.

Semenov, S.M., I.M. Kounina, and B.A. Koukhta, 1998: An ecological analysis of anthropogenic changes in ground-level concentrations of O3, SO2, and CO2 in Europe. Doklady Biological Sciences, 361, 344-347.

Semenov, S.M., I.M. Kounina, and B.A. Koukhta, 1999: Tropospheric ozone and plant growth in Europe. Meteorology and Hydrology Publishing Center, Moscow, Russia, 208 pp. (in Russian).

Shiller, C.L. and D.R. Hastie, 1996: Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from perturbed and unperturbed boreal forest sites in northern Ontario. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 22767-22774.

Siegenthaler, U. and F. Joos, 1992: Use of a simple model for studying oceanic tracer distributions and the global carbon cycle. Tellus, 44B, 186-207.

Sombroek, W.G., F.O. Nachtergaele, and A.V. Hebel, 1993: Amounts, dynamics and sequestering of carbon in tropical and subtropical soils. Ambio, 22, 817-826.

Spiecker, H., K. Mielik�inen, M. K�hl, and J.P. Skovsgaard (eds.), 1996: Growth Trends in European Forests-Studies from 12 Countries. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 354 pp.

Stallard, R.F., 1998: Terrestrial sedimentation and the carbon cycle: Coupling weather and erosion to carbon burial. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 231-257.

Steele, L.P., E.J. Dlugockenky, P.M. Lang, P.P. Tans, R.C. Martin, and K.A. Masarie, 1992: Slowing down of the global accumulation of atmospheric methane during the 1980's. Nature, 358, 313-316.

Steffen, W., I. Noble, J. Canadell, M. Apps, E.-D. Schulze, P.G. Jarvis, D. Baldocchi, P. Ciais, W. Cramer, J. Ehleringer, G. Farquhar, C.B. Field, A. Ghazi, R. Gifford, M. Heimann, R. Houghton, P. Kabat, C. K�rner, E. Lambin, S. Linder, H.A. Mooney, D. Murdiyarso, W.M. Post, C. Prentice, M.R. Raupach, D.S. Schimel, A. Shvidenko, and R. Valentini, 1998: The terrestrial carbon cycle: Implications for the Kyoto protocol. Science, 280, 1393-1394.

Tamm, C.O., 1991: Nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Questions of productivity, vegetational changes, and ecosystem stability. In: Ecological Studies 81. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, New York, NY, USA, and London, United Kingdom, 116 pp.

Tans, P.P. and D.W.R. Wallace, 1999: Carbon cycle research after Kyoto. Tellus, 51B, 562-571.

Taylor, C.M.A. and P.M. Tabbush, 1990: Nitrogen deficiency in Sitka spruce plantations. Forestry Commission Bulletin 89, 20 pp.

Thompson, M.V., J.T. Randerson, C.M. Malmstr�m, and C.B. Field, 1996: Change in net primary production and heterotrophic respiration: How much is necessary to sustain the terrestrial sink? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 711-726.

Tian, H., J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, A.D. McGuire, J.V.K. Helfrich III, B. Moore III, and C.J. V�r�smarty, 1998: Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Nature, 396, 664-667.

Tisdall, J.M. and J.M. Oades, 1982: Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. Journal of Soil Science, 33, 141.

Tubiello, F.N., C. Rosenzweig, B.A. Kimball, P.J. Pinter, G.W. Wall, D.J. Hunsaker, R.L. La Morte, and R.L. Garcia, 1999: Testing CERES-wheat with free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment data: CO2 and water interactions. Agronomy Journal, 91, 247-255.

Uhl, C., R. Buschbacher, and E.A.S. Serrao, 1988: Abandoned pastures in Eastern Amazonia. I. Patterns of plant succession. Journal of Ecology, 76, 663-681.

Valentini, R., G. Matteucci, A.J. Dolman, E-D. Schulze, C. Rebmann, E.J. Moors, A. Granier, P. Gross, N.O. Jensen, K. Pilegaard, A. Lindroth, A. Grelle, C. Bernhofer, T. Gr�nwald, M. Aubinet, R. Ceulemans, A.S. Kowalski, T. Vesala, �. Rannik, P. Berbigier, D. Loustau, J. Gudmundsson, H. Thorgeirsson, A. Ibrom, K. Morgenstern, R. Clement, J. Moncrieff, L. Montagnani, S. Minerbi, and P.G. Jarvis, 2000: The carbon sink strength of forests in Europe: novel results from the flux observation network. Nature, (in press).

van Noordwijk, M., C. Cerri, P.L. Woomer, K. Nugroho, and M. Bernoux, 1997: Soil carbon dynamics in the humid tropical forest zone. In: The Management of Carbon in Tropical Soils Under Global Change Science, Practice and Policy [Elliott, E.T., J. Kimble, and M.J. Swift (eds.)]. Geoderma, 79, 187-225.

Viglizzo, E.F., Z.E. Roberto, M.C. Filipp�n, and A.J. Pordomingo. 1995: Climate variability and agroecological change in the Central Pampas of Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 55, 7-16.

Vitousek, P.M. and R.W. Howarth, 1991: Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: How can it occur? Biogeochemistry, 13, 87-115.

Vitousek, P.M. and R.L. Sanford, Jr. 1986: Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17, 137-167.

Walker, B.H., W.L. Steffen, and J. Langridge, 1999: Interactive and integrated effects of global change on terrestrial ecosystems. In: Implications of Global Change for Natural and Managed Ecosystems: A Synthesis of GCTE and Related Research [Walker, B.H., W.L. Steffen, J. Canadell, and J.S.I. Ingram (eds.)]. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Book Series No. 4, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 329-375.

Wang, Y.P., P.G. Jarvis, and C.M.A. Taylor, 1991: PAR absorption and its relation to above-ground dry matter production of Sitka spruce Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 547-560.

Wang, Y-P., A. Rey, and P.G. Jarvis, 1998: Carbon balance of young birch trees grown in ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Global Change Biology, 4, 797-807.

Wechsung, G., F. Wechsung G.W. Wall F.J. Adamsen B.A. Kimball P.J. Pinter R.L. La Morte R.L. Garcia, and T. Kartschall, 1999: The effects of free-air CO2 enrichment and soil water availability on spatial and seasonal patterns of wheat growth. Global Change Biology, 5, 519-530.

Winchester, J.W., F. Song-Miao, and L. Shao-Meng, 1988: Methane and nitrogen gases from rice fields of China-possible effects of microbiology, benthic fauna, fertilizer and agricultural practice. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 37, 149-155.

Winguth, A.M.E., M. Heimann, K.D. Kurz, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, and J. Segschneider, 1994: El Ni�o-southern oscillation related fluctuations of the marine carbon cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 39-63.

Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltver�nderungen (WBGU), 1998: Die Anrechnung biologischer Quellen und Senken im Kyoto-Protokoll: Fortschritt oder R�ckschlag f�r den globalen Umweltschutz. Sondergutachten 1998, Bremerhaven, Germany, 76 pp. (available in English).

Zoltai, S.C. and P.J. Martikainen, 1985: Estimated extent of forest peatlands and their role in the global C cycle. In: Forest Ecosystems. Forest Management and the Global C Cycle [Apps, M.J. and D.T. Price (eds.)]. NATO ASI series, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 548 pp.

Other reports in this collection