Aviation and the Global Atmosphere

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Figure 3-7: Aerosol-mass column between 15- and 20-km altitude, derived from backscatter measurements made by lidar at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, between 1976 and end of 1998. Dates of major volcanic eruptions are marked on the horizontal axis (H, St. Helens; A, Alaid; C, El Chich�n; R, Ruiz; N, Nyamuragira; P, Pinatubo). The dashed line indicates the average value of 1979, which can be considered a background value free from volcanic influence (adapted from J�ger and Hofmann, 1991; J�ger et al., 1998).

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