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World Resources 2005 is the result of a unique partnership between the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute (WRI). It is the only instance where UN agencies, a multilateral financial institution, and an NGO work together to determine the content, conclusions, and recommendations of a major environmental report.

For this eleventh edition in the World Resources series, the World Resources staff gives special thanks to the governments of Norway and Finland through the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development, the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the MacArthur Foundation for their generous financial support of World Resources 2005 and EarthTrends, the companion website to the World Resources series.

We thank our Norwegian colleagues at UNEP/GRIDArendal for their contributions of energy, ideas, and content. We are grateful to our colleagues in the Poverty Environment Partnership (PEP), an informal network of bilateral aid agencies, development banks, UN agencies, and NGOs Their advice and the concepts embodied in the PEP publication “Linking Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management” were important inputs for this volume. Likewise, we acknowledge the intellectual contributions of Jon Anderson and his colleagues at USAID, whose publication “Nature, Wealth, and Power: Emerging Best Practice for Revitalizing Rural Africa” formed one of the foundations of our thinking.

Individual Contributions

Many individuals contributed to the development of this report by providing written drafts, careful review of manuscripts, data, or expert advice. While final responsibility for the contents rests with the World Resources staff, the report reflects valuable contributions from all of the following individuals. In particular, we wish to thank Mirjam Schomaker (consultant) of UNEP, Kirk Hamilton of The World Bank, Charles McNeill of UNDP, and Otto Simonett (UNEP/GRID-Arendal) for coordinating the input of colleagues from their organizations.We also wish to acknowledge the important intellectual contributions made by Paul Steele of the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID), Jon Anderson (USAID), Jan Bojö (World Bank), and Peter Hazelwood (UNDP). In addition, we appreciate the tireless writing and editing efforts of Polly Ghazi, Karen Holmes, and Wendy Vanasselt. Below we detail the individual efforts of our many writers, contributors, and reviewers:

Part I The Wealth of the Poor

Chapter 1 Nature, Power, and Poverty

Main Text: Lead Writers: Paul Steele (consultant), Greg Mock (WRI) Contributors: Yumiko Kura (consultant)
Box 1.1: Lead Writer: Emily Cooper (WRI)
Box 1.2: Lead Writer: Emily Cooper (WRI)
Box 1.3: Lead Writer: Emily Cooper (WRI)
Box 1.4: Lead Writers: Amy Cassara (WRI), Daniel Prager (WRI), Paul Steele (consultant)

Chapter Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Jon Anderson (USAID), Anna Ballance (DFID), Jan Bojö (World Bank), Dr Shelton Davis (Georgetown University), Polly Ghazi (consultant), Kirk Hamilton (World Bank), David Jhirad (WRI), Onesmus Mugyenyi (ACODE), Urvashi Narain (RFF), Thierry Oliveira (UNEP), Jennifer Potter (Seattle Initiative for Global Development), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Michael Toman (IADB), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

Chapter 2 Ecosystems and Livelihoods of the Poor

Main Text: Lead Writers: Daniel Prager (WRI), Greg Mock (WRI) Contributors: Emily Cooper (WRI), Robert Soden (WRI), John Virden (World Bank)
Box 2.1: Lead Writer: Daniel Prager (WRI) Contributor: Valerie Thompson (WRI)
Box 2.2: Lead Writer: Robert Soden (WRI)

Chapter Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Edmund Barrow (IUCN), Jan Bojö (World Bank), Patti Kristjanson (ILRI), Urvashi Narain (RFF), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Charlie Shackleton (Rhodes University), Sheona Shackleton (Rhodes University), Paul Steele (consultant), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

Chapter 3 The Role of Governance

Main Text: Lead Writers: Antonio LaViña (WRI), Karen Holmes (consultant) Contributors: Wendy Vanasselt (consultant)
Box 3.1: Lead Writer: Karen Holmes (consultant)
Box 3.2: Lead Writers: Karen Holmes (consultant), Emily Cooper (WRI)
Box 3.3: Lead Writer: Antonio LaViña (WRI) Contributor: Smita Nakhooda (WRI)

Chapter Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Anna Ballance (DFID), John Bruce (World Bank), Max Everest-Phillips (DFID), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

Chapter 4 Four Steps to Greater Environmental Income

Main Text: Lead Writer: Greg Mock (WRI) Contributors: Antonio LaViña (WRI), Karen Holmes (consultant), Emily Cooper (WRI), Wendy Vanasselt (Consultant)
Box 4.1: Lead Writer: Polly Ghazi (consultant)
Box 4.2: Lead Writers: Emily Cooper (WRI), Polly Ghazi (consultant)
Box 4.3: Lead Writer: Allen Hammond (WRI)
Box 4.4: Lead Writer: Emily Cooper (WRI)
Box 4.5: Lead Writer: David Jhirad (WRI)

Chapter Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Jon Anderson (USAID), Anna Ballance (DFID), Charles McNeill (UNDP), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Paul Steele (consultant), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

Chapter 5 Turning Natural Assets into Wealth: Case Studies

Lead Writer: Polly Ghazi (consultant)
Contributors: Dr Margaret Jacobsohn (IRDNC), Chris Weaver (WWF)

Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Jon Anderson (USAID), Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay (World Bank), Peter Croal (Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment), Dr Margaret Jacobsohn (IRDNC), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Otto Simonett (UNEP/GRID-Arendal), Dan Tunstall (WRI), Peter Veit (WRI), Chris Weaver (WWF)

Darewadi, India
Lead Writer: Polly Ghazi (consultant)
Contributors: Crispino Lobo (WOTR)

Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Salif Diop (UNEP), Dr John Kerr (Michigan State University), Crispino Lobo (WOTR), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Amita Shah (Gujarat Development Research), Anju Sharma (UNEP), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

Lead Writer: Polly Ghazi (consultant)
Co-Authors: Edmund Barrow (IUCN), Wendelin Mlenge (NAFRAC), Prof Gerald Monela (Sokoine University of Agriculture)

Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Jon Anderson (USAID), Edmund Barrow (IUCN), Kirk Hamilton (World Bank), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

Lead Writer: Polly Ghazi (consultant)
Contributors: Julian Newman (EIA)

Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Rama Astraatmaja (Arupa), David Brown (DFID), Dave Currey (EIA), Julian Newman (EIA), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Otto Simonett (UNEP/GRID-Arendal), Fred Stolle (WRI), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

Lead Writers: Toni Parras (LMMA Network), Bill Aalbersberg (USP Institute of Applied Science), Alifereti Tawake (USP Institute of Applied Science)

Editors: Peter Whitten (WRI), Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: John Parks (NOAA), Robert Pomeroy (University of Connecticut), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), John Virdin (World Bank)

Special Section: Global Development Policies

Lead Writers: Karen Holmes (consultant), Norbert Henninger (WRI)
Contributors: Greg Mock (WRI), Dan Tunstall (WRI)
Chapter Editor: Greg Mock (WRI)
Reviewers: Jan Bojö (World Bank), Charles McNeill (UNDP), Mirjam Schomaker (UNEP consultant), Paul Steele (consultant)

Part I Graphics:

Daniel Prager (WRI), Robert Soden (WRI), Amy Cassara (WRI)

Part II Data Tables

Project Manager: Amy Cassara (WRI)
Data Team Advisor: Dan Tunstall (WRI)
Lead Writers: Amy Cassara (WRI), Robert Soden (WRI), Daniel Prager (WRI)
Contributors: Abigail Moy (WRI), Jonathan St. John (WRI), Brianna Peterson (WRI), Rajiv Sharma (WRI), Claudio Tanca (WRI), Abigail Nugent (WRI)

1. Population and Education
2. Human Health
3. Gender and Development
4. Income and Poverty

Reviewers: Alan Brewster (Yale University), Nada Chaya (PAI), Robert Johnston (UNDP), Dan Tunstall (WRI), Tessa Wardlaw (UNICEF)

5. Economics and Financial Flows
Reviewers: Christian Averous (OECD), Katharine Bolt (University of East Anglia), Rashid Hassan (University of Pretoria), Saeed Ordoubadi (World Bank), Amanda Sauer (WRI), Dan Tunstall (WRI)

6. Institutions and Governance
Reviewers: David Banisar (Privacy International), Carl Bruch (ELI), Marianne Fernagut (UNEP/GRID-Arendal)

7. Energy, 8. Climate and Atmosphere
Reviewers: Kevin Baumert (WRI), Tim Herzog (WRI), Niklas Höhne (ECOFYS), Matt Markoff (University of Washington), Karen Treanton (IEA)

9. Water Resources and Fisheries
Reviewers: Karen Frenken (FAO), Yumiko Kura (consultant), Eriko Hoshino (World Bank), Sandra Postel (Global Water Policy), Carmen Revenga (TNC)

10. Biodiversity
Reviewers: Robert Hoft (CBD), Hillary Masundire (IUCN), Frederik Schutyser (IUCN), Alfred O. Yeboah (CBD)

11. Land Use and Human Settlements
Reviewers: Tony Janetos (Heinz Foundation), David Kaimowitz (CIFOR), Marc Levy (CIESIN), Martin Raithelhuber (UN-HABITAT), Jeff Tschirley (FAO)

12. Food and Agriculture
Reviewers: Marianne Fernagut (UNEP/GRID-Arendal), Suzie Greenhalgh (WRI), Siet Meijer (World Bank), Mindy Selman (WRI)

Additional Thanks

The staff of World Resources also wishes to extend thanks to the following individuals for their various contributions:

Jill Blockhus, John Bruce, Jane Kibbassa, Priya Shyamsundar, Stephano Pagiola, John Virdin, and Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay from the World Bank; Marion Cheatle, Jacquie Chenje, Timothy Kasten, Thierry Oliveira, and Anju Sharma from UNEP; Gelila Terrefe and Peter Hazelwood from UNDP; Jon Anderson from USAID; Urvashi Narain from Resources for the Future; Anna Ballance and Max Everest-Philips from DFID; Carmen Revenga from The Nature Conservancy; Ashok Khosla from Development Alternatives; Owen Cylke and David Reed from the WWF Macroeconomics Program Office; Peter Veit, Jesse Ribot, Frances Seymour, Philip Angell, Oretta Tarkhani, and Paul Mackie from WRI.