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Vital Water Graphics 2

Fish diversity in freshwater systems

Table of contents
Toward a world of thirst?ForewordExecutive summary Water and population

1. State of the world’s water

2. Freshwater resources3. Coastal and marine water4. Water and climate change

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Although freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and wetlands occupy less than 2% of the earth’s total land surface, they provide a wide range of habitats for a significant proportion of the world’s plant and animal species. Many are yet to be discovered, but the number of freshwater species worldwide is estimated at between 9,000 and 25,000 (Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000). However, this number is rapidly decreasing due to human interference.

Physical alteration, habitat degradation, excessive water withdrawal and pollution have contributed directly or indirectly to the decline in freshwater species. Other factors that reduce freshwater biodiversity include the incursion of non-native species and the mismanagement of inland fisheries. Today, an estimated 20% of the world’s freshwater fish is vulnerable, endangered or extinct (Revenga et al., 1998).