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Caspian Sea - State of Environment 2011

The first State of the Environment Report of the Caspian Sea (SoE-Report) was prepared by GRID-Arendal and presented at the Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP3) in Aktau, Kazakhstan 10-12 August 2011.

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The Caspian Sea, surrounded by the five coastal countries the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan), the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran), Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan), the Russian Federation and Turkmenistan, is the largest land-locked water body on Earth. The isolation of the Caspian Basin together with its climatic and salinity gradients has created a unique ecological system with some 400 species endemic to the Caspian waters.Today, many Caspian species are threatened by over-exploitation, habitat destruction, pollution and climate change. It reflects negatively on human well-being, social and economic sectors, and environmental services.