GIS at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)7

B.D. Perry, R.L. Kruska and R.S. Reid

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background and objectives

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) is developing ways to improve livestock productivity and human welfare in the developing world. Since 1987, ILRAD's Socio-economics and Environmental Impact Programme has been using spatial data and analysis to develop information and decision support systems that will help improve our ability to understand and anticipate animal health problems faced by African farmers. Initially, ILRAD conducted GIS analyses at UNEP/GRID, but in 1989, ILRAD's programme grew to include permanent personnel and the appropriate software and hardware. The principal goals of the GIS analyses at this time were to predict better the occurrence and distribution of livestock diseases and to explore the use of GIS in impact assessment analyses. In late 1992, the programme added an environmental focus by initiating research on the impacts of controlling tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis on the environment. In 1993, ILCA established a GIS facility to analyze the constraints to forage production in the Ethiopian highlands.

With the merger of ILRAD and ILCA into ILRI this year, the GIS needs of this centre are expected to grow substantially. The new centre not only subsumes the former mandates of ILRAD and ILCA but also has expanded its geographic scope from Africa to other regions of the developing world. Thus, the new institute has a mandate to improve control of livestock diseases and to enhance livestock productivity globally. To accomplish this expanded mandate, it will be necessary to understand all the constraints to livestock production (health, genetics, nutrition, management, environment) and to assess the impacts (environmental, social and economic) of introducing new technologies into livestock production systems. This need will span several scales of resolution (global, continental, eco-regional, national and local).

1.2 Institutional linkages

In addition to the original collaboration with UNEP, several other institutional linkages have been forged with ILRI in the area of GIS and database development. CRES (Australia National University) and ICRAF have collaborated in the development of continental climatic databases; NRI (UK) in cooperative studies of environmental impacts of controlling the tsetse fly; Blackland Research Centre (Texas A&M University) in GIS software, hardware, database and modelling support; FEWS (USAID) and USGS in supplying land-use layers for selected countries; FAO (soils and administrative boundary layers); and WCMC (protected area information).

2.0 Spatial Data and Information Management Capacities

2.1 Main objectives, mandates, documented outputs

Currently, spatial data are being used in the following projects at ILRI:

a. Predicting livestock disease and vector occurrence and distribution;

b. Assessing the socio-economic and environmental impacts of trypanosomiasis and its control in sub-Saharan Africa;

c. Determining the dynamics of livestock-mediated nutrient transfers in semi-arid West Africa landscapes, and the implications for natural resource management; and

d. Determining the constraints on forage production in the Ethiopian highlands.

In the coming decade, this focus may broaden to include:

a. Assessing the constraints to livestock production globally;

b. Developing techniques to characterize livestock production systems so that constraints to production and impacts of interventions can be determined;

c. Improving natural resource management in pastoral and mixed crop-livestock systems;

d. Determining the relative importance of livestock interventions compared with other interventions in farming systems; and

e. Setting priorities for research.

A list of literature published describing research using GIS at ILRI appears in Appendix 1.

2.2. Data and Information management capacities

The hardware/software capacity of ILRI has evolved since 1989 from a single 386-based microcomputer system running pcARC/INFO to a much more powerful system in 1995. Currently, the facility in Nairobi is running workstation ARC/INFO version 7.0 and ARCVIEW 2 on a Sparcstation 10 model 41 with six gigabytes of storage and 64 MB of memory, a Sparcstation 1 with the same software, a Pentium 90 and Pentium 60 with pcARC/INFO, ARCVIEW 2 and IDRISI 4.1. Also included is a large Calcomp digitiser and colour and black and white output devices. The microcomputers and workstations are networked via TCP/IP (Internet) and Novell Netware which has greatly improved data and resource-sharing capacities (via ftp and Xwindows). Maintenance and upgrades to the system are estimated at US$15,000-20,000 per year. System staff include one geographer and one data-entry technician, although this is expected to increase within the year. The data holdings of ILRI appear in Appendix 2.

3.0 Priority Needs

3.1 Data and information needs

ILRI scientists have need for GIS databases in several areas. For analysis at specific field sites, these databases will be developed at ILRI, using remote sensing as needed. For broader-scale databases, ILRI already has access to good long-term mean climatic data, human population densities for the African continent, potential vegetation, and topographic information (see Appendix 2 for current ILRI GIS data holdings). The following list includes only GIS data that is needed by ILRI that either does not exist or is of very poor quality:

a. Land-use and agricultural productivity (ground-truthed patterns, both current and historical; distribution of potential arable land);

b. Pest distributions (historical data, recent surveys and opportunistic records; systematic compilations of records);

c. Soils (fertility, texture, constraints for different forage and crop types, constraints to ploughing);

d. Demography (human and livestock population: growth rates; movements; rural/urban distributions; numbers of males and females; and livestock species, types and breeds);

e. Land cover/vegetation (potential, real-time, and an historical time series);

f. Climate (historical time-series for selected areas and real time data for predictive purposes);

g. Administrative boundaries (highest resolution data possible and constant updating required;

h. Infrastructure (veterinary dips, road type and quality, wells and springs);

i. Natural resources (forage and browse types and biomass, rare habitats (wetlands), areas of high conservation value);

j. Biodiversity (distribution and populations sizes of animals and plants with high value for conservation or assessment of environmental impacts; distributions of rare and endangered species);

k. Production systems (types, user-defined);

l. Socio-economic data (market locations, monthly prices of commodities; per capita livestock product consumption by product type; income levels and income growth rates; food grain production and surpluses; average farm size; imports/exports of livestock commodities)

3.2 Capacity building needs (staff, training, technology)

Staff needs at ILRI include a social scientist who has in-depth experience in analysing spatial socio-economic data; a remote sensing specialist to conduct analyses of changes in natural resources and predict future trends at specific sites; and a intermediate-level GIS specialist to assist current staff. Training is needed in advanced spatial modelling and data analysis techniques, and GIS data manipulation and analysis (for selected scientists). Technology needs include ERDAS remote sensing software.

3.3 Networking needs

The workload on ILRI GIS staff would be reduced measurably if GRID/Arendahl maintained and distributed all CG GIS databases. ILRI also has need of digital access to Internet to increase the efficiency of communication and data transfers.

Appendix 1:

GIS Publications at ILRI

Kruska, R.L. and Perry, B.D. (1995). Recent progress in the development of decision support systems for improved animal health. Africa GIS 95 meeting, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

Kruska, R.L. and Perry, B.D. (1992). Development of spatial databases for

analysis of tick-borne diseases of cattle in Zimbabwe. SADDC Regional Workshop on Geographic Information Systems for Natural Resource Management, Harare, Zimbabwe, April 1992.

Kruska, R.L. and Perry, B.D. (1991). Evaluation of grazing lands of Zimbabwe using the AVHRR normalised difference vegetation index. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 11, 361-363.

Kruska, R.L. and Perry, B.D. (1991). The development and use of geographic information systems to study tick-borne animal disease in Zimbabwe. In: Institutional Concerns and Opportunities in LIS/ IS, Proceedings of the third seminar on land and Geographical Information systems in Zimbabwe, Harare, 4-5 March, 1991.

Lessard, P., L'Eplattenier, R., R.A.I. Norval, T.T. Dolan, H. Croze, K. Kundert, J.B. Walker, A.D. Irvin and B.D. Perry, 1990. Geographical information systems for studying the epidemiology of cattle diseases caused by Theileria parva. Vet. Rec., 126:255-262.

Mukhebi, A.W., Delehanty, J., Curry, J.J., Grandin, B.E., Kisiara, R., Kruska, R.L. and Perry, B.D. (in preparation). Identification of target cattle populations for immunization against East Coast fever by production system characterization in Uasin Gishu District of Kenya. Agricultural Systems.

Mukhebi, A.W., Perry, B.D. and Kruska, R.L. (1992). Estimated economics of theileriosis control in Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 12, 73-85.

Norval, R.A.I., Perry, B.D., Meltzer, M.I., Kruska, R.L. and Booth, T.H. (1994). Factors affecting the distributions of the ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and A. variegatum in Zimbabwe: implications of reduced acaricide use. Experimental and Applied Acarology.

Norval, R.A.I., Perry, B.D., Kruska, R.L. and Kundert, K. (1991). The use of climate data interpolation in estimating the distribution of Amblyomma variegatum in Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 11, 365-366.

Perry, B.D., R.L. Kruska, D. Pfeiffer, L. Duchateau, R.A.I. Norval, S.E. Randolph, D.J. Rogers and U. Ushewokunze-Obatolu. 1995. Modelling the distribution of tick-borne diseases in Zimbabwe using geographical information systems (in preparation).

Perry, B.D., Kruska, R.L., Norval, R.A.I., Randolph, S., Rogers, D. and Ushewokunze-Obatolu, U. (1995). Modelling the distributions of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. zambeziensis and theileriosis in Zimbabwe using geographic information systems (GIS). Experimental and Applied Acarology (in preparation).

Perry, B.D. and R.L. Kruska, 1994. Information Management Technology to Strengthen Veterinary Services: an Appraisal of the Systems Available and Their Uses in Developing Countries. Expert consultation: The Need for Information Systems to Strengthen Veterinary Services in Developing Countries, FAO, Rome, November, 1993.

Perry, B.D., Kruska, R.L. and Reid, R.S. (1993). The development and use of geographic information systems to assist trapanosomiasis control. Paper presented to a meeting of the panel of experts on ecological, technical and development aspects of the programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development, FAO, Rome, December, 1993.

Perry, B.D., Norval, R.A.I., Kruska, R.L., UshewokunzeObatolu, U. and Booth, T.

(1991). Predicting the epidemiology of tickborne diseases of cattle in Zimbabwe

using geographic information systems. In: Proceedings of the Sixth

International Symposium in Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Ottawa,

pp 214-216.

Perry, B.D., Kruska, R., Lessard, P., Norval, R.A.I. and Kundert, K. (1991). Estimating the distribution and abundance of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 11, 261-268.

Perry, B.D., Lessard, P., Norval, R.A.I., Kundert, K. and Kruska, R. (1990). Climate, vegetation and the distribution of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Africa. Parasitology Today, 6, 100104.

Reid, Robin S., Russell L. Kruska, Cathleen J. Wilson, Brent M. Swallow, James E. Ellis, and Brian D. Perry. 1994. Trypanosomiasis control: The conflict between food production and biodiversity in Africa, p. 80. Proceedings of the IVth International Ecology Congress, 20-26 August, 1994, Manchester, England.

Reid, R.S. 1994. A proposed study of the environmental and social impacts of tsetse control in Zambezi Valley. In: Proceedings of the workshop entitled 'Workshop to Coordinate NRI/ILRAD/WWF Studies of Land-use Change in the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe', 16-17 May, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Reid, R.S. Land-use change: the link between human-dominated systems and biodiversity in Africa. Paper presented at the workshop entitled, 'Biodiversity in Africa's human landscapes'. 20-23 July, 1994, Nairobi, Kenya (unpublished).

Reid, R.S., J.J. Curry, B.M. Swallow, A.W Mukhebi, B.D. Perry, and J.E. Ellis. 1993. Ecological, Social and Economic Impacts of Trypanotolerance: Collaborative Research in Central and West Africa Paper presented at the workshop entitled "Towards increased utilisation and adoption of trypanotolerance - current status of research and future directions." ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya, 26-29 April, 1993.

Reid, R.S., R.L. Kruska, B.D. Perry, J.E. Ellis and C.J. Wilson. 1993. Environmental impacts of trypanosomiasis control: conceptual model, approach and preliminary results of studying indirect effects through changes in land-use. In: Proceedings of 22nd Meeting of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control, Kampala, Uganda.

Reid, R.S., James E. Ellis, Brent M. Swallow, Brain D. Perry, and Russell L. Kruska. 1993. Ecological implications of controlling tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis in Africa: GIS case studies. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 74(2):406.

Reid, R.S., Kruska, R.L., Perry, B.D., Ellis, J.E., and Wilson, C.J. (1993).

Environmental impacts of trypanosomiasis control: conceptual model, approach and preliminary results of studying indirect effects through changes in land-use. 22nd meeting of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control (ISCTRC), 25-29 October, 1993, Kampala, Uganda.

Appendix 2

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE DESCRIPTIONS

AFRICA, ZIMBABWE, KENYA, TANZANIA,

ETHIOPIA, MALI and BURKINA FASO

JANUARY, 1995

ILRI

INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ILRI)

SOCIOECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

P.O. BOX 30709

NAIROBI, KENYA

TEL. 254 (2) 630743 FAX. 254 (2) 631499 EMAIL ILRAD@CGNET.COM

AREA DESCRIPTION COVERAGE INPUT SCALE SOURCE STATUS

AFRICA ELEVATION MODEL CONTINENT-WIDE UNKNOWN ANU-ILRAD-IITA COMPLETE

AFRICA ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES CONTINENT-WIDE VARIES FA0 1993 COMPLETE

AFRICA ETHNIC GROUPS CONTINENT-WIDE 1:10,000,000 ILRAD-MURDOCK ON-GOING

AFRICA VEGETATION--TOULOUSE CONTINENT-WIDE 1:5,000,000 FAO-UNEP -ICIV COMPLETE

AFRICA VEGETATION SELECTED COUNTRIES VARIES WCMC ON-GOING

AFRICA CONSERVATION AREAS CONTINENT-WIDE VARIES WCMC COMPLETE

AFRICA WETLANDS/MANGROVES CONTINENT-WIDE VARIES WCMC ON-GOING

AFRICA HUMAN POPULATION CONTINENT-WIDE UNKNOWN UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA LANDUSE--MILANOVA CONTINENT-WIDE UNKNOWN UNEP/MOSCOW COMPLETE

AFRICA SOILS CONTINENT-WIDE UNKNOWN FAO COMPLETE

AFRICA DIGITAL CHART WORLD II AFRICA--SOUTH OF EQ. 1:1,000,000 FEWS COMPLETE

AFRICA CATTLE DENSITY CONTINENT-WIDE VARIES ILRAD-FAO ON-GOING

AFRICA DAYLENGTH CONTINENT-WIDE N/A ILRAD COMPLETE

AFRICA R. APPENDICULATUS DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA R. ZAMBEZIENSIS DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA R. APP. DIST. EXPERT OPINION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA R. NITENS DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA R. DUTTONI DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA TSETSE-FUSCA GROUP CONTINENT-WIDE 1:5,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA TSETSE-PALPA GROUP CONTINENT-WIDE 1:5,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA TSETSE-MORSITANS GROUP CONTINENT-WIDE 1:5,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA TSETSE-ALL GROUPS CONTINENT-WIDE 1:5,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA BUFFALO DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:5,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA WATERBUCK DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:15,000,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

AFRICA KUDU DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:15,000,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

AFRICA CATTLE DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:10,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA EAST COAST FEVER DISTRIBUTION CONTINENT-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA CATTLE TYPES CONTINENT-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AFRICA ECOLIMATIC INDEX R. APPENDIC. CONTINENT-WIDE N/A ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AREA DESCRIPTION COVERAGE INPUT SCALE SOURCE STATUS

AFRICA ECOLIMATIC INDEX A. VARIEGATUM CONTINENT-WIDE N/A ILRAD-UNEP COMPLETE

AREA DESCRIPTION COVERAGE INPUT SCALE SOURCE STATUS

___________________________

AFRICA BIOCLIM MODEL R. APPENDIC. CONTINENT-WIDE N/A ANU-ILRAD COMPLETE

AFRICA BIOCLIM MODEL R. ZAMBEZIENSIS CONTINENT-WIDE N/A ANU-ILRAD COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE LAND CLASSIFICATION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP(ZSG) COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE NATURAL REGIONS COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP(ZSG) COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE PROVINCIAL BOUNDARIES COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP(ZSG) COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE DISTRICT BOUNDARIES COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP(ZSG) COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE COMMUNAL BOUNDARIES COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP(ZSG) COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE VEGETATION-SPECIES COUNTRY-WIDE 1:2,500,000 ILRAD-MAP(ZSG) COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE TRANSPORTATION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:250,000 ILRAD-MAP 90% COMP.

ZIMBABWE CATTLE DIP TANKS COMMUNAL LANDS 1:250,000 ILRAD-ZDVS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE DIP TANK SERVICE AREAS COMMUNAL LANDS 1:250,000 ILRAD-THIESSEN ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE CATTLE DENSITY COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-ZDVS ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE MEAN RAINFALL MONTHLY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A CSIRO-AUSTRAL. COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE MEAN EVAPORATION MONTHLY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A CSIRO-AUSTRAL. COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE MEAN MAX TEMP MONTHLY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A CSIRO-AUSTRAL. COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE MEAN MIN TEMP MONTHLY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A CSIRO-AUSTRAL. COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE ELEVATION COUNTRY-WIDE N/A CSIRO-AUSTRAL. COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE CLIMATE STATION DATA SELECTED AREAS N/A ILRAD-DBMS ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE THEILERIOSIS OUTBREAKS 79-89 COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ZDVS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE SALE PEN LOCATIONS COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE VET. SERVICES LOCATIONS COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-ZDVS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE CATTLE DENSITY COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-ZDVS-DBMS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE R. APPENDICULATUS DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP-DBMS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE R. ZAMBEZIENSIS DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP-DBMS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE A. VARIEGATUM DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP-DBMS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE A. HEBRAEUM DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP-DBMS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE B. MICROPLUS DISTRIBUTION 1979 COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP-DBMS COMPLETE

AREA DESCRIPTION COVERAGE INPUT SCALE SOURCE STATUS

___________________________

ZIMBABWE B. MICROPLUS DISTRIBUTION 1980 COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP-DBMS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE B. MICROPLUS DISTRIB. 1981-82 COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 ILRAD-MAP-DBMS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE ECOINDEX R. APPENDICULATUS COUNTRY-WIDE N/A ILRAD-MODEL COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE ECOINDEX A. VARIEGATUM COUNTRY-WIDE N/A ILRAD-MODEL COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE ECOINDEX B. MICROPLUS COUNTRY-WIDE N/A ILRAD-MODEL COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE ECOINDEX B. DECOLORATUS COUNTRY-WIDE N/A ILRAD-MODEL COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE KUDU DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:2,000,000 ILRAD-MAP ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE ELAND DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:2,000,000 ILRAD-MAP ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE GIRAFFE DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:2,000,000 ILRAD-MAP ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE WARTHOG DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:2,000,000 ILRAD-MAP ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE BUFFALO DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE 1:2,000,000 ILRAD-MAP ON-GOING

ZIMBABWE WARD BOUNDARIES MASHONALAND EAST 1:100,000 ILRAD-ZDVS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE DIP TANK LOCATIONS MASHONALAND EAST 1:100,000 ILRAD-ZDVS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE CROP-USE INTENSITY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A FEWS COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE TSETSE SPRAY AREAS COUNTRY-WIDE UNKNOWN NRI COMPLETE

ZIMBABWE SOILS COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 TSBF COMPLETE

KENYA LAND REGISTRATION UNITS UASIN GISHU DISTRICT 1:100,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

KENYA DIVISION BOUNDARIES UASIN GISHU DISTRICT 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

KENYA DISTRICT BOUNDARIES UASIN GISHU DISTRICT 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

KENYA LOCATION BOUNDARIES UASIN GISHU DISTRICT 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

KENYA SUBLOCATION BOUNDARIES UASIN GISHU DISTRICT 1:50,000 ILRAD PARTIAL

KENYA TRANSPORTATION-TERTIARY UASIN GISHU DISTRICT 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

KENYA SOCIOECONOMIC SURVEYS UASIN GISHU DISTRICT GPS ILRAD-DBMS COMPLETE

KENYA AGROECOLOGICAL ZONES LAMU, KILIFI, KWALE VARIOUS GTZ HANDBOOK COMPLETE

KENYA PRIMARY ROADS KILIFI, KWALE 1:250,000 ILRAD-ILCA COMPLETE

KENYA TRANSPORTATION-TERTIARY KALOLENI DIVISION 1:50,000 ILRAD-ILCA COMPLETE

KENYA ELEVATION CONTOURS 250 METRE KALOLENI DIVISION 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

AREA DESCRIPTION COVERAGE INPUT SCALE SOURCE STATUS

___________________________

KENYA LOCATION BOUNDARIES KALOLENI DIVISION 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

KENYA DIVISION BOUNDARIES KALOLENI DIVISION 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

KENYA VILLAGE LOCATIONS KALOLENI DIVISION 1:50,000 ILRAD-ILCA COMPLETE

KENYA CATTLE CENSUS KALOLENI DIVISION 1:50,000 ILRAD-ILCA COMPLETE

KENYA CATTLE DISEASE SURVEY KALOLENI DIVISION 1:50,000 ILRAD-ILCA COMPLETE

KENYA CATTLE DIP TANK LOCATIONS KALOLENI DIVISION GPS ILRAD-ILCA/GPS COMPLETE

KENYA ELEVATION MODEL COUNTRY-WIDE UNKNOWN ANU-ILRAD-IITA COMPLETE

KENYA LOCATIONS, SUBLOCATIONS 1979 COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 UNEP-ILRAD ON-GOING

KENYA LOCATIONS, SUBLOCATIONS 1989 COUNTRY-WIDE 1:250,000 ILRAD-FEWS-UNEP ON-GOING

KENYA LOCATIONS 1969 COUNTRY-WIDE UNKNOWN TSBF PLANNED

KENYA SOILS COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 UNEP-TSBF COMPLETE

TANZANIA AMBLYOMMA VARIEGATUM DISTRIB. COUNTRY-WIDE N/A WALKER COMPLETE

TANZANIA BOOPHILUS DECOLORATUS DISTRIB COUNTRY-WIDE N/A WALKER COMPLETE

TANZANIA BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS DISTRIB. COUNTRY-WIDE N/A WALKER COMPLETE

TANZANIA R. APPENDICULATUS DISTRIBUTION COUNTRY-WIDE N/A WALKER COMPLETE

MALI CROP-USE INTENSITY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A FEWS COMPLETE

MALI VEGETATION COUNTRY-WIDE N/A FEWS COMPLETE

BURKINA CROP-USE INTENSITY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A FEWS COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA CATTLE POPULATION DENSITY COUNTRY-WIDE N/A ILRAD/FAO COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA SOILS COUNTRY-WIDE 1:2,000,000 USGS/IFPRI COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA AWRAJAS BOUNDARIES 1985 COUNTRY-WIDE ? USGS/IFPRI COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA AWRAJAS BOUNDARIES 1989 COUNTRY-WIDE ? USGS/IFPRI COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA WAREDA BOUNDARIES 1985 COUNTRY-WIDE ? USGS/IFPRI COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA WAREDA BOUNDARIES 1989 COUNTRY-WIDE ? USGS/IFPRI COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA 1 KM DEM COUNTRY-WIDE 1:1,000,000 USGS/IFPRI COMPLETE

AREA DESCRIPTION COVERAGE INPUT SCALE SOURCE STATUS

___________________________

ETHIOPIA LANDUSE COUNTRY-WIDE 1975 1:1,000,000 USGS/IFPRI COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA LANDUSE SOUTHWESTERN ETH. 1:250,000 WOODY BIOMASS COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA TM SATELLITE IMAGE GHIBE VALLEY 1993 30 METRE ILRAD COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA LANDUSE GHIBE VALLEY 1993 1:100,000 ILRAD PARTIAL

ETHIOPIA 100 METRE DEM GHIBE VALLEY 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA TRANSPORTATION NETWORK GHIBE VALLEY 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

ETHIOPIA STREAM NETWORK GHIBE VALLEY 1:50,000 ILRAD COMPLETE

Abbreviations:

ANU--AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

CSIRO--COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION, AUSTRALIA

FAO--FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION OF THE U.N.

FEWS--FAMINE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

GPS--GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM DEVICE

IFPRI--INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

ILCA-INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK CENTRE FOR AFRICA

IITA--INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AGRICULTURE

TSBF--TROPICAL SOIL BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY

USGS--U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

WCMC--WORLD CONSERVATION MONITORING CENTRE

ZDVS--ZIMBABWE DEPT. OF VETERINARY SERVICES

ZSG--ZIMBABWE SURVEYOR GENERAL


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