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Permafrost soil stone formations, Kongsfjord
Permafrost is a layer of soil or rock that remains frozen throughout the entire year and is found at the North and South Poles and in some alpine areas. The patterns on the ground are caused by a complex cycle of freezing and melting that creates many small pools on the ground during Summer. As the earth expands and contracts with the change of seasons, stones and other materials in the earth are filtered like a sieve, resulting in the fascinating patterns seen here.