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Norilsk, pipelines, North Siberia, Russia, 1991
Norilsk is the northernmost city in the world with more than 100,000 inhabitants and the world's second largest city (after Murmansk) north of the Arctic Circle.
Norilsk was founded at the end of the 1920s, but the official date of founding is 1935, when Norilsk was expanded as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex and became the center of the Norillag system of GULAG labor camps.
Norilsk is located between the West Siberian Plain and Central Siberian Plateau at the foot of the 1,700-meter high Putoran Mountains, on some of the largest nickel deposits on Earth. Consequently, mining and smelting ore are the major industries. Norilsk is the center of a region where nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium, and coal are mined.