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Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Sagarmatha National Park / Nepal
This shy Himalayan mammal species is listed by IUCN as Endangered because of a probable serious population decline. The musk produced by this genus of primitive deer is highly valued for its cosmetic and alleged pharmaceutical properties, and can fetch U.S.$45,000 per kilogram on the international market. Although this musk, produced in a gland of the males, can be extracted from live animals, most "musk-gatherers" kill the animals to remove the entire sac, which yields only about 25 grams (1/40 of a kilogram) of the brown waxy substance. Such poaching is relatively easy to accomplish and difficult to stop using only legal means.