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Cattle in Lofoten, Norway
In 2008 the United Nations Environment Program expressed extreme concern for the implications of climate change on the Arctic regions. A warming Arctic climate is projected to cause various consequences such as melting sea ice and a rising and warming sea level, which in turn has a significant effect on the natural ecosystem. This is already seen in the appearance of shrubbery in Arctic climates, northern movement of animals from the South and influx of invasive species and diseases, with the implications most felt in coastal areas.