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African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus), Tourist attraction at Boulders Beach, South Africa
The African Penguin (the only penguin species breeding in Africa) is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. The African Penguin is listed in the Red Data Book as an endangered species. While million of penguins existed at the beginning of the last century, the total population fell to 200 000 in the year 2000; ten years later, in 2010, the number was estimated to be only at 55000 (about 21 000 pairs estimated in South Africa). The majority breeds on islands. Two colonies were established by penguins in the 1980s on the mainland near Cape Town, namely Boulders Beach near Simon's Town and Stony Point in Betty's Bay. Mainland colonies probably only became possible in recent times due to relative absence of predators in human occupied garden and beach sites. At Boulders Beach they are a major attraction for tourists, which pay for their protection through the management of the National Park Service (an example of "Linking Tourism and Conservation).