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Identifying alternative solvents to protect the ozone layer:

December 1997 - With the phase-out deadlines having passed for developed countries for CFCs (1 January 1996), there is a wealth of phase-out experience in companies that have met technical challenges and successfully overcome them. Now the need is to transfer that hands-on knowledge base to developing countries, who must use the experience from those success stories to implement their own ODS phase-out projects. 

This is especially crucial in light of the first control measure that applies to developing countries - the pending 1999 freeze in consumption and production of Annex A CFCs by developing countries that are Party to the Protocol. Through these documents and other services, the Industry and Environment office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP IE) is helping to meet this need.

The first collection of case studies, Identifying Alternative Solvents, was developed in cooperation with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and funded as part of UNEP's Work Programme under the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. It presents 21 case studies documenting actual elimination of CFC-113 and 1,1,1-trichloroethane from industrial solvent applications in companies from nine countries: Canada, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States.

The case studies reflect a wide variety of company types and sizes, and they include many different industries, and demonstrate how both internal and external financial and technical resources can be used effectively to convert to non-ODS solvents. The case studies provide descriptions of the company, its use of ODS, the methods employed to reduce or eliminate the use of these solvents, and the costs of the conversion to alternatives. Importantly, each case study also includes a section on "Applicability to Developing Countries", which indicates the relevance of the described technological solution to the situation of those countries. Quality review and collection of the case studies were undertaken by the International Cooperative for Environmental Leadership, and the UNEP Solvents, Coatings & Adhesives Technical Option Committee.

The second case study collection, Case Studies from the Japanese Experience, was developed by the Japan Industrial Conference for Ozone Layer Protection (JICOP), with technical support of the UNEP IE OzonAction Programme, documents the experience of 19 companies and industry associations in converting to non-ODS technologies for metal cleaning, precision cleaning, refrigeration, polyurethane foam, aerosol propellants, and fire extinguishing applications. Each case study explains what was done, why the technology was selected, and whether the technology is fully satisfactory. Economic benefits and advantages of the new technology are included. The case studies provide readers with a picture of the broad range of successful technologies that can be adopted in a single country.

Both documents have a number of case studies which are of importance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries. These two case study collections are part of the information exchange services provided by UNEP to developing countries to help them meet their obligations under the Montreal Protocol. The OzonAction Programme also provides other clearinghouse services (Training & Networking of ODS Officers) as well as assistance with the development of national ODS phase out strategies (Country Programmes) and Institutional Strengthening support.

For more information,contact:

UNEP IE OzonAction Programme, Tour Mirabeau,
39-43 quai Andre Citroen,
Paris 75739 cedex 15, France
or Tel: (33.1), Fax: (33.1),
email:, UNEP Information Note 1997/36

Identifying Alternative Solvents to Protect the Ozone Layer:
Case Studies from Around the World: 250 FF/US$ 45

Technologies to Protect the Ozone Layer:
Case Studies from the Japanese Experience: Free.
To order either of the Case Study Collections, please contact:

SMI (Distribution Services) Limited
P.O. Box 119 Stevenage
Hertfordshire SG1 4TP England
Fax: +44 (1438) 748 844

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