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Development in Offshore wind capacity Development in Offshore wind capacity
Offshore wind, currently around 3 000 MW, has mainly been concentrated in northern European countries, around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Europe’s leadership is primarily attributed to public policy and a thriving wind energy industry. EU legislation mandates significant reductions of carbon emission, requiring, among other measures, greater usage of renewable energy resources. As of 2011, around 69 wind farms were installed or under const...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Looking further offshore and in deeper waters Looking further offshore and in deeper waters
The high capital cost of offshore foundations bounds offshore wind energy to near shore locations. Most of the capacity has been installed in relatively shallow waters (under 20 m deep) no more than 20 km from the coast in order to minimize the extra costs of foundations and sea cables (EWEA, 2009). Most of the recently added capacity is installed in water depths of up 40 metres, as far as 60 kilometres off the coast, as shown in the figure.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin
Global average temperature increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century, while sea levels rose by 9 to 20 cm. The IPCC projects increases in the global average surface temperature by between 1.4°C and 5.8°C and in sea level by between 9 and 88 cm. Sea level rise in combination with hurricane landfalls presents one of the greatest climate-related hazards in tropical Latin America. From 1945 to 1990 there had been an overall decrease in the number ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The World is Losing its Mangroves The World is Losing its Mangroves
Mangrove forests occur naturally in intertidal zones along sheltered shorelines and in deltas in tropical regions. They are vital breeding grounds for fish and shrimp and also provide a buffer against coastal hazards such as storms, cyclones, wind and salt spray by reducing wind and wave action (Braatz et al. 2007).
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Potential renewable energy by region Potential renewable energy by region
In million tonnes of oil equivalent: wind, solar energy, biomass and hydroelectricity, comparison between different regions. All these energy sources stand as possible renewable alternatives to nuclear power and fossil fuels
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wind power generation per region Wind power generation per region
Wind energy generating capacity, trends in the time period 1980-1995, in megawatts for Asia, Europe And Northern America. Wind power remains one of the cleanest alternatives to fossil fuels and nuclear power.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in wind generating capacity Trends in wind generating capacity
Global development of wind in the form of wind power plants between 1980-1995, in megawatts. Wind power represents one of the most attractive and clean alternative and renewable power sources, utilizing the inhert power in the atmosphere.
01 Oct 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional trends in wind power generation Regional trends in wind power generation
Wind power remains one of the cleanest alternatives to fossil fuels and nuclear power. Wind energy generating capacity, trends in the period 1980-1995, in megawatts for Asia, Europe And Northern America.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in wind energy generating capacity Trends in wind energy generating capacity
Net annual addition to global wind energy generating capacity, general trend 1980-1995, in megawatts. Wind power represents a possible energy source to replace fossil fuels, like oil and coal, as well as non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear power.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Radioactive waste hotspots and transboundary pollution in Central Asia’s Ferghana Valley Radioactive waste hotspots and transboundary pollution in Central Asia’s Ferghana Valley
The Soviet Union used the Ferghana Valley as one of its main sources of metal and uranium ore. The area has many nuclear waste storage sites, abandoned uranium mines with poorly secured tailing dams and nuclear reactors that pose a severe security hazard. Tailings are exposed to wind erosion and easily accessible to grazing animals.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Mining and ore waste Mining and ore waste
Mining waste takes up a great deal of space, blights the landscape and often affects local habitats. By its very nature it can constitute a serious safety hazard. Poor management may allow acidic and metals containing drainage to the environmnent, it can result in contaminated dusts be spread by the wind, and can also pose a physical risk. Indeed, the failure of structures such as dams built to contain mining waste has lead to many accidental sp...
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
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Overview of renewable energy sources Overview of renewable energy sources
This chart shows eight different sources of renewable energy and explains advantages and drawbacks of each - wind, sun (photovoltaic and thermal), geothermal, wood, ocean, waste, water (hydroelectricity).
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment in Central Asia [Russian] Environment in Central Asia [Russian]
There are 25 billion tonnes of waste just from mining and metal production in Central Asia. The most effected areas are highlighted based on a variety of different types of environmental damage such as desertification and wind erosion. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment in Central Asia Environment in Central Asia
There are 25 billion tonnes of waste just from mining and metal production in Central Asia. The most effected areas are highlighted based on a variety of different types of environmental damage such as desertification and wind erosion.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hazardous industrial waste in Kadamjai Hazardous industrial waste in Kadamjai
The Kadamjai antimony plant in southern Kyrgyzstan stands close to the Uzbek border and the town of the same name. The plant annually consumes 20 000 tones of ore. Ore waste dumps are exposed to erosion by rain and wind – resulting in contamination of soil and water resources by pollutants.
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring The “Hole”: a result of special weather conditions over the pole repeated every spring
The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes. The region poleward of this jet stream is called the Antarctic polar vortex. The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air.” “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Chemical reactions on th...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ozone hole size 1980–2006 Ozone hole size 1980–2006
The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due to early warming of the polar stratosphere caused by air disturbances originating in mid-latitudes, rather than by major changes in the amount of reactive chlorine and bromine in the Antarctic stratosphere.
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - solar power (potential) Natural resource - solar power (potential)
More than two billion people cannot access affordable energy services today. They depend on inefficient locally collected and often unprocessed biomass-based fuels, such as crop residues, wood, and animal dung. Because convenient, affordable energy can contribute to a household’s productivity and income generating potential, its availability can help families and communities break out of the cycle of poverty. At the same time it also provides gro...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003 Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003
In 1970s and 1980s - years of environmental crisis, there were few trees remaining in Niger. Wind-blown sands razed farmers' young crops and they often had to plant crops three times to succeed. Since the middle of the 1980s in the most densely populated parts of Niger farmers have begun to protect and manage young trees and bushes regenerating on their cultivated fields. This is natural farmer-managed forest regeneration. Some trees fix nitrogen...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean experiences much less exchange with the atmosphere than other oceans; momentum exchange (wind drag), heat exchange and freshwater exchange are limited due to the sea ice cover.
01 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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