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Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s total annual renewable freshwater resources amount to 20 cubic km per year, and although the country experiences quality and dry season problems at present, continued pressure on the resource will lead to water stress by 2025 (Hirji et al. 2002). Poor infrastructure hampers access to water in most urban areas, and in the capital, Harare, and the second main city, Bulawayo, residents have gone without piped water for as long as two we...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater availability per capita in Zambezi River Basin countries Freshwater availability per capita in Zambezi River Basin countries
The water flow in the Zambezi river is estimated at 3 600 cu m per second. This represents about 87 mm/year of equivalent rainfall and less than 10 per cent of the average rainfall in the basin (Shela 2000). The average annual rainfall in the basin is about 950 mm/year (Mitchell 2004), but is unevenly distributed across the basin. The southern and western parts of the basin receive less rainfall than the northern and eastern parts. The more den...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in cereal productivity in Africa, due to climate change – current climate to 2080 Projected changes in cereal productivity in Africa, due to climate change – current climate to 2080
Water is essential not only to survival but is also equally or even more important than nutrients in food production. Agriculture accounts for nearly 70% of the water consumption, with some estimates as high as 85% (Hanasaki et al., 2008a,b). Water scarcity will affect over 1.8 billion people by 2025 (WHO, 2007). This could have major impacts on health, particularly in rural areas, and thus also major impacts on farmer productivity. Althoug...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical agriculture Tropical agriculture
There is great potential to restore carbon in tropical agricultural soils through management practices that, in the right circumstances, can also increase productivity. Agroforestry can offer particularly large carbon gains, although it can increase water demand. Agricultural carbon sequestration policies will need to be tailored to particular circumstances to allow farmers to benefit.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water Scarcity Index Water Scarcity Index
Water overuse is damaging the environment in many major basins. High overuse tends to occur in regions heavily dependent on irrigated agriculture, such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain in south Asia, the North China Plain and the High Plains of North America, and in areas undergoing rapid urbanization and industrial development. An estimated 1.4 billion people now live in river basin areas that are ‘closed’ (in that water use exceeds minimum recharge l...
13 Sep 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Water supply and demand in Nairobi Water supply and demand in Nairobi
The bulk of water supply for Nairobi comes from Thika, Sasumua and Ruiru Dams, as well as the Kikuyu Springs. Over time water supply for the city has failed to meet demand. The current estimated water demand for Nairobi is 650 000 m3/day compared to the production of 482 940 m3/day (WRMA 2010). The difference between production and demand has been widening over time due to population growth, inadequacy of the carrying capacity of the distributio...
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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