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Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity of 36,2 psu (practical salinity units) near Gibraltar to 38,6 psu in the Levantine basin; • the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), formed in the Levantine basin, lying in depth between 200 and 800 m, and characterised by temp...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual discharge, the ten largest rivers contributing to the Mediterranean Sea are the Rhone, Po, Drin-Bojana, Nile, Neretva, Ebro, Tiber, Adige, Seyhan, and Ceyhan. These rivers account for half of the mean annual discharge, with the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s total annual renewable freshwater resources amount to 20 cubic km per year, and although the country experiences quality and dry season problems at present, continued pressure on the resource will lead to water stress by 2025 (Hirji et al. 2002). Poor infrastructure hampers access to water in most urban areas, and in the capital, Harare, and the second main city, Bulawayo, residents have gone without piped water for as long as two we...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Access to safe water for the urban and rural population in Zambia Access to safe water for the urban and rural population in Zambia
Although Zambia has serious challenges of water pollution arising from contamination by sewage and toxic industrial chemicals in mining areas, the country continues to sustain the provision of improved water supply to urban areas, although access in rural areas remains below 50 per cent, as shown in the figure.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Population using improved water sources in Namibia Population using improved water sources in Namibia
Access by urban households to safe drinking water is slightly less than 100 per cent, but decreasing. Access of rural households to safe drinking water was 88 per cent in 2008, up from 67 per cent in 2000. The government has improved water supply to rural communities through the provision of new boreholes and the rehabilitation of existing boreholes, as well as the development of pipelines. Namibia recycles water, especially in urban areas. This...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Access to clean water and improved sanitation in Mozambique Access to clean water and improved sanitation in Mozambique
The proportion of the population with access to safe drinking water has increased significantly to 56 per cent in 2009, from 37.3 per cent in 1997. The national target for 2015 is 70 per cent. The proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation has increased from 40 per cent in 2003 to 45 per cent in 2009, with a target of 50 per cent for 2015. Thus, Mozambique is likely to meet the 2015 targets for access to water and sanitation...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Households with sustainable access to improved water source in Malawi Households with sustainable access to improved water source in Malawi
According to the Malawi Development Goals Report 2009, the country has already surpassed the MDGs targets for access to clean water and improved sanitation, and is well on its way to achieving 100 per cent for the latter.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Population using improved drinking water sources in Botswana Population using improved drinking water sources in Botswana
Due to deliberate policy and strategic action, Botswana is in the envious position of having met its water and sanitation targets well before the MDG targets and the timelines for its own Vision 2016. More than 90 per cent of the population in urban and rural areas has access to drinking water and sanitation.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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SIDS freshwater availability SIDS freshwater availability
SIDS, though surrounded by water, grapple with limited potable water supplies, poor potable water quality, sanitisation and inefficient distribution systems. The connectivity of the different components of the water cycle is also important, as shortages along one point affect another. Significant pressure is placed on existing freshwater systems in SIDS by urbanisation, unsustainable agricultural practices, the demands of tourism, mining and ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Access to safe drinking water in Angola Access to safe drinking water in Angola
Large numbers of people were displaced during the war and moved to urban areas, living in overcrowded slums, where the infrastructure did not exist or could not cope with their influx. The sharp increase in access to safe drinking water by 2004 reflects the emergency assistance and humanitarian resources that flowed in following the peace agreement, but in some cases was not sustainable. Angola has witnessed improved access to sanitation in ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Average water requirement for biofuels Average water requirement for biofuels
The figure shows average water requirement for biofuels. Underlying data need to be interpreted in context. For example, rainfed jatropha is produced in Mali as a biofuel, which means that it receives less water than in many comparable contexts, but also with somewhat lower output of biofuel. India in contrast, has been irrigating jatropha to achieve commercially acceptable yields. The two contexts will produce different water footprint measurem...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Variation in blue water footprints for selected energy crops Variation in blue water footprints for selected energy crops
Figure compares the water necessary to produce, transport, and convert a given crop into a fuel in two different regions. This shows important variations, and points to the need for careful matching of energy crops and production and conversion systems with available water supplies. The global trade in biofuel crops has created a ‘virtual water exchange’ where some countries with low water resources ‘export’ their water in the form of bio...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Topography and hydrography of the Ferghana Valley Topography and hydrography of the Ferghana Valley
To date there are three main groups of issues that are relevant to environmental and security issues in the region. These are access to and quality if natural resources (primarily water and land but also forest and more generally biodiversity resources), existing or potential pollution from industrial facilities, hazardous and radioactive waste sites; and cross-cutting issues such as natural disasters, climate change, public health, environmenta...
03 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Topography and hydrography of the Ferghana Valley Topography and hydrography of the Ferghana Valley
To date there are three main groups of issues that are relevant to environmental and security issues in the region. These are access to and quality if natural resources (primarily water and land but also forest and more generally biodiversity resources), existing or potential pollution from industrial facilities, hazardous and radioactive waste sites; and cross-cutting issues such as natural disasters, climate change, public health, environmenta...
03 Oct 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine
The Concept of National Security of Belarus focuses on both external and internal security issues. It directly refers to environmental problems such as global climate change, trans-boundary transport of pollution and the risk of serious accidents at industrial facilities located in Belarus and other countries close to Belarus borders, land degradation and radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water Scarcity Index Water Scarcity Index
Water overuse is damaging the environment in many major basins. High overuse tends to occur in regions heavily dependent on irrigated agriculture, such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain in south Asia, the North China Plain and the High Plains of North America, and in areas undergoing rapid urbanization and industrial development. An estimated 1.4 billion people now live in river basin areas that are ‘closed’ (in that water use exceeds minimum recharge l...
13 Sep 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Working for Water employment Working for Water employment
The Working for Water programme was launched in 1995 and is administered through the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. The programme works in partnership with local communities which it provides with jobs, and also with government departments including the then Departments of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Agriculture, and Trade and Industry, provincial departments of agriculture, conservation and environment, research foundations and...
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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