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Tag: Water

Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe water in rural and urban areas in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s total annual renewable freshwater resources amount to 20 cubic km per year, and although the country experiences quality and dry season problems at present, continued pressure on the resource will lead to wat...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe water for the urban and rural population in Zambia
Although Zambia has serious challenges of water pollution arising from contamination by sewage and toxic industrial chemicals in mining areas, the country continues to sustain the provision of improved water supply to ur...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved water sources in Namibia
Access by urban households to safe drinking water is slightly less than 100 per cent, but decreasing. Access of rural households to safe drinking water was 88 per cent in 2008, up from 67 per cent in 2000. The governmen...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to clean water and improved sanitation in Mozambique
The proportion of the population with access to safe drinking water has increased significantly to 56 per cent in 2009, from 37.3 per cent in 1997. The national target for 2015 is 70 per cent. The proportion of the popul...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Households with sustainable access to improved water source in Malawi
According to the Malawi Development Goals Report 2009, the country has already surpassed the MDGs targets for access to clean water and improved sanitation, and is well on its way to achieving 100 per cent for the latter...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Population using improved drinking water sources in Botswana
Due to deliberate policy and strategic action, Botswana is in the envious position of having met its water and sanitation targets well before the MDG targets and the timelines for its own Vision 2016. More than 90 per c...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
SIDS freshwater availability
SIDS, though surrounded by water, grapple with limited potable water supplies, poor potable water quality, sanitisation and inefficient distribution systems. The connectivity of the different components of the water cyc...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Access to safe drinking water in Angola
Large numbers of people were displaced during the war and moved to urban areas, living in overcrowded slums, where the infrastructure did not exist or could not cope with their influx. The sharp increase in access to sa...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Average water requirement for biofuels
The figure shows average water requirement for biofuels. Underlying data need to be interpreted in context. For example, rainfed jatropha is produced in Mali as a biofuel, which means that it receives less water than in ...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Variation in blue water footprints for selected energy crops
Figure compares the water necessary to produce, transport, and convert a given crop into a fuel in two different regions. This shows important variations, and points to the need for careful matching of energy crops a...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Topography and hydrography of the Ferghana Valley
To date there are three main groups of issues that are relevant to environmental and security issues in the region. These are access to and quality if natural resources (primarily water and land but also forest and more...
03 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Topography and hydrography of the Ferghana Valley
To date there are three main groups of issues that are relevant to environmental and security issues in the region. These are access to and quality if natural resources (primarily water and land but also forest and more...
03 Oct 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine
The Concept of National Security of Belarus focuses on both external and internal security issues. It directly refers to environmental problems such as global climate change, trans-boundary transport of pollution and the...
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water Scarcity Index
Water overuse is damaging the environment in many major basins. High overuse tends to occur in regions heavily dependent on irrigated agriculture, such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain in south Asia, the North China Plain and ...
13 Sep 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Working for Water employment
The Working for Water programme was launched in 1995 and is administered through the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. The programme works in partnership with local communities which it provides with jobs, and al...
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal