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Waste management hierarchy Waste management hierarchy
Greening the waste sector refers to a shift from less-preferred waste treatment and disposal methods such as incineration (without energy recovery) and different forms of landfilling towards the “three Rs”: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. The strategy is to move upstream in the waste management hierarchy based on the internationally recognised approach of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM)(UNEP 2011).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Pacific regional waste composition Pacific regional waste composition
Waste management in SIDS, as in other developing countries, is a growing problem because of population growth, urbanisation, changing consumption patterns and the large numbers of tourists. Most of the waste collected is disposed of via sanitary landfilling, as opposed to recycling. This form of disposal represents missed economic opportunities and creates future challenges for SIDS due to the limited availability of land, potential contaminatio...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Solid waste management cost for selected cities Solid waste management cost for selected cities
As garbage piles up, however much space we set aside for landfill, we are beginning to realise that producing waste at this rate is no longer viable. It is time for the three “Rs”: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and integrated waste management. Waste management strategies are as diverse as waste itself. But whatever we do there is no escaping the “waste of waste” (unless we rein in our greed and buy less).
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Landfilling and incinerating still leading in Europe Landfilling and incinerating still leading in Europe
As the garbage pile gets higher and the environmental conscience sharpens, it is now recognized that producing waste at this rate is no longer acceptable. Now is the time for “integrated waste management” and its motto – “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” (the famous 3 Rs) – a practice that most developing countries started to apply long before it was even formulated. As waste disposal strategies evolve, the consumption rates in the developed world are que...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Different approaches and overlapping definitions to waste Different approaches and overlapping definitions to waste
Waste is generated in all sorts of ways. Its composition and volume largely depend on consumption patterns and the industrial and economic structures in place. Air quality, water and soil contamination, space consumption and odors all affect our quality of life. Waste is a complex, subjective and sometimes controversial issue. There are many ways to define, describe and count it depending on how you look at it. Citizens, technicians, businessmen,...
14 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions due to solid waste disposal on land Emissions due to solid waste disposal on land
Landfi ling is the most common waste management practice, and results in the release of methane from the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Methane is around 20 times more potent as a GHG than carbon dioxide. If the disposal of organic matter were to be decreased (for example by composting or incineration) it would be possible to reduce the amount of methane emissions. However, landfill methane is also a source of energy, and some lan...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solid waste management cost for selected cities Solid waste management cost for selected cities
Sound waste management requires a high level of technology and a signif cant budget. What Japan and Germany can afford today, most countries will have to wait a long time for. Developed countries have a lot to learn from the recycling and reuse levels in developing countries.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Municipal solid waste generation for selected large cities in Asia Municipal solid waste generation for selected large cities in Asia
Municipal waste is everything collected and treated by municipalities. Only part of it is comes from households, the rest is generated by small businesses, commercial and other municipal activities. So it is produced from both consumption and production processes. Like all waste, municipal waste is on the rise and it is growing faster than the population, a natural result of our increasing consumption rate and the shortening of product life-spans...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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What is in a Swiss rubbish bag? (household waste) What is in a Swiss rubbish bag? (household waste)
The amount and composition of municipal waste depends on a variety of factors. It is related to our living standard but wealth does not explain everything. It is also correlated with levels of urbanization, energy choices, waste management strategies and the “good” or “bad” habits of consumers. Although our garbage bins represent only a small part of the total waste generated, it is an important part: the one in which everyone can take action. Th...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Contribution of various waste management systems to greenhouse gas emissions, 2002 Contribution of various waste management systems to greenhouse gas emissions, 2002
The disposal and treatment of waste can produce emissions of several greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. The most significant GHG gas produced from waste is methane. It is released during the breakdown of organic matter in landfills. Other forms of waste disposal also produce GHGs but these are mainly in the form of carbon dioxide (a less powerful GHG). Even the recycling of waste produces some emissions (although ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The richer we get, the more we discard - human consumption, waste and living standards The richer we get, the more we discard - human consumption, waste and living standards
According to various scenarios, the economic development (presented in this graphic as Gross Domestic Product, GDP) will most likely continue for the next decades – but at a slower pace for those countries that can afford advanced waste management strategies. As 1.3 billion Chinese thunder into the great pleasures of consumption, municipal waste is certainly a major environmental concern.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hungary, topographic map Hungary, topographic map
Hungary is located in Central Europe, northwest of Romania, comprising of 93,030 sq km. It has a population of 10,006,835 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments.
17 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Heftingsdalen shipping area Heftingsdalen shipping area
At the entrance to the plant, which covers more than 15 hectares, a sign announces:“Compost, bark and wood shavings for sale”. Other waste is separated, packed and redirected to logistics centres elsewhere in Norway and Sweden. Jens Christian Fjelldal, the head of the plant, explains that they sell a range of more than 200 recycled materials to buyers in Europe and even South America and Asia. The recycling activity pays its way, enabling the t...
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Waste collection in Curitiba Waste collection in Curitiba
In the 1980s severe hygienic problems plagued parts of Curitiba where housing development was uncontrolled. The winding streets were too narrow for council trucks and waste rotting in the open caused disease. In 1989 the council decided to act. It sent environmental education teams into affected areas where they joined forces with neighbourhood associations to organise waste collection by local people.
15 Dec 2006 - by Cécile Marin
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Packaging waste production per capita in Europe Packaging waste production per capita in Europe
The manufacture of packaging itself generates waste and by defi nition it has a particularly short lifespan. It turns into waste as soon as its contents reaches its destination. This is certainly a blessing for the packaging sector – and the related plastics, paper and printing industries – but it presents a serious challenge for waste management.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Typical hazardous wastes generated by selected manufacturing industries Typical hazardous wastes generated by selected manufacturing industries
Industry is the top producer of waste in developed countries. A large proportion of industrial waste is hazardous, because industrial processes often involve chemicals. Cleaner production – reducing the amount of problematic components in a product and additives used in the production process – waste avoidance and a life cycle approach to waste management are attempts in the right direction.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Household waste and recycling in England Household waste and recycling in England
In 1999, the British consultant BioRegional thought up an innovative way of dealing with waste paper. Surely offices could sort their own paper and, after local reprocessing, reuse it? Local Paper for London now recycles more than 2000 tonnes of paper a year, cutting the paper bill by 20 per cent for 400 organisations (schools, government bodies, firms, etc.) taking part in the scheme.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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A history of waste management A history of waste management
A visual timeline of historical waste manaement. From the first recorded landfill created in Knossos in 3000 B.C. to the English parliament banning waste disposal in public waterways and ditches in 1388 to the establishment of The Basel Convention in 1992.
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio, Emmanuelle Bournay
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Heftingsdalen, Norway Heftingsdalen, Norway
The plant is designed to restrict waste movement and environmental damage. Strict safety regulations govern storage of hazardous waste (chemicals, asbestos, varnish, oil, etc.). Such waste is not moved until it is destroyed on the spot or redirected to specialist plants elsewhere. All the other waste is separated by the consumers themselves and dumped into skips.
15 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean
In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2), other greenhouse gasses that play an important role in the region are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These gasses are produced primarily in the sectors of waste management, mining, industrial processes, and in the production and distribution of natural gas, petroleum and agricultural products. Among the region’s countries, Brazil is the highest emitter of both methane and nitrous oxide. Other countries...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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