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Near Surface Temperature Near Surface Temperature
Summary of arctic amplification depicted from one of the climate models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC 2007).
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gas Arctic Gas Arctic
The temperature regime of sub-sea permafrost is determined by the annual temperature of the surrounding seawater, just like the thermal regime of terrestrial permafrost is determined by the arctic surface temperature.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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South West Greenland Ocean Temperature South West Greenland Ocean Temperature
Initially, meltwater was assumed to be the prime cause of glacier acceleration, making its way to the ground beneath ice sheets, lubricating it and causing the glaciers to flow more quickly to the sea.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Surface Temperature Degree Surface Temperature Degree
No data
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Surface Temperature Surface Temperature
At the regional, ocean basin scale, the area between the insulating sea-ice cover and the open ocean (known as the ice margin) is characterized by particularly strong temperature gradients during winter, favoring the development of low pressure systems along the edge of the ice, as well as smaller, intense features known as polar lows that present hazards to shipping.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature
Annual rates of population change of individual murre colonies during 12 years after the 1977 climatic regime shift in the North Pacific and during 9 years after the 1989 shift, in relation to changes in sea surface temperatures around the colonies from one decadal regime to the next. Population data are from 32 U. aalge and 21 U. lomvia colonies, encompassing the entire circumpolar region. Ten sites supported both species, so 43 different study...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Ice coverage and primary production in the Arctic Ice coverage and primary production in the Arctic
Temperature changes may influence fish populations both directly, through shifts to areas with preferred temperature, and indirectly through the food supply and the occurrence of predators. The length of the ice-free period in the Arctic, for example, affects annual primary production, which is the basis of the food chain supporting populations of fish, sea mammals, and seabirds. As the amount of ice in the Arctic has considerably reduced since t...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Advancement of phenological events in high-arctic Greenland Advancement of phenological events in high-arctic Greenland
It is clear from lower latitudes that phenological trends are linked to temperature changes and experimental warming also results in earlier plant phenology. Yet, in Arctic and alpine ecosystems, the melting of the winter snow pack rather than temperature per se determines the onset of biological activity like the timing of flowering in plants and emergence in invertebrates. As such, the phenology of these groups of organisms, or taxa, could be a...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species) Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species)
The comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their numbers, upsetting the entire food chain. The jelly is an invasive species, brought from North America by ships.
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Arctic, as defined by summer temperature The Arctic, as defined by summer temperature
The Arctic is a region not easily delineated by one boundary or definition - it includes the Arctic Ocean and the land areas around it, including Greenland, Eurasia and North America. A climate definition of the Arctic is the 10 centigrade July isotherm. This limit roughly coincides with the treeline and represents a change in growing conditions for plants. As visible in the map, this also includes mountainous and alpine areas. The map also prese...
01 Nov 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hurricanes on Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009 Hurricanes on Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009
The extreme climatic events of the Mesoamerican and Caribbean region show that there is a strong correlation (most likely non-linear) between greenhouse gas emissions, temperature increases, increased intensity of hurricanes and the rise in sea levels (IPCC 2007 and Stern 2007). For example, in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean sub-region, there were 36 hurricanes between 2000 and 2009, as against 15 and 9 per year in the 1980s and 1990s. Moreover, d...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Index of biodiversity potential in Central America Index of biodiversity potential in Central America
Biodiversity is vitally important to human well-being as it provides ecosystem services on which humans depend. For many species that are sensitive to even small variations in climate, their primary threat is climate change. Variations in climate affect different species of flora and fauna differently, producing, in some cases, a disruption in food chains and/or in reproductive patterns. It is therefore necessary to reduce or control greenhouse g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climatic events, a slow but significant reduction in the cryosphere (including glaciers) and a rise in sea levels. Available scientific evidence associates the phenomenon of climate change with increased concentrations of anthropogenic g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, Northern Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on changes in local climate, and local variations in temperature and precipitation play a particularly important role in this. Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers all over the world, except in the Antarctica, indicate a general trend of global warming. In addition to its rapid decrease in size, the San Quintín glacier located in North Patagonia, Chile, has also been exhibiting cracks and f...
22 Nov 2010 - by Viktor Novikov, Zoï Environment
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Expected impacts of climate change in 2050 Expected impacts of climate change in 2050
It is expected that by 2050 there will be threats to ecosystem services in the Andes and Mexico, in the Central American and Caribbean sub-regions, and in southeastern Brazil, while there will be negative effects on fishing in the Pacific coastal areas of Peru and Chile. The decrease in precipitation will have adverse effects on agricultural yields in several regions and countries throughout the continent. Particularly noteworthy within Latin Ame...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean changes in runoff Mean changes in runoff
Changes in precipitation and temperature influence changes in runoff and the availability of water. Results from models of changes in runoff are consistent with predictions for precipitation. For 2090-2099, in areas for which increases in the rainfall regimen are expected, increases in runoff are also projected. The anticipated changes in runoff are based on the A1B climate change scenario which assumes future rapid demographic and economic growt...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Warming of the earth's surface Warming of the earth's surface
Climate projections for Latin America and the Caribbean indicate that temperature increases will vary according to the particular emissions scenario and country or region concerned. According to the A1B climate change scenario (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) regional increases this century are pro...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate impacts of El Niño Phenomenon in Latin America and the Caribbean Climate impacts of El Niño Phenomenon in Latin America and the Caribbean
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a natural phenomenon that has occurred for centuries. Ocean and atmospheric conditions in the Pacific tend to fluctuate between El Niño (warming) and a drop in temperature in the tropical Pacific known as La Niña. The fluctuations are rather irregular, but tend to appear every three to six years. A more intensive phase of each event may last for about a year. A warming climate may contribute to an increase i...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate impacts and tropical diseases in Colombia Climate impacts and tropical diseases in Colombia
Shows comparative trend between air temperature in Colombia and levels of malaria and dengue fever. When temperatures increase, especially in combination with more precipitation, vector borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever increase in frequency and distribution. In particular, areas where the minimum night temperatures increase provide the best conditions for the growth and spread of Anopheline spp. and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (McCarth...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in regional average surface temperatures Trends in regional average surface temperatures
Latin America and the Caribbean follows the global trend of recent increases in temperatures. Observational records show that the region, with a few variations, has been warming through the 20th century. As in the rest of the world, the average temperature increased gradually from early 1900s except a somewhat cooler period in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s the temperature again started to increase and has continued to increase until today, ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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