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Projected winter temperature changes in the Arctic Projected winter temperature changes in the Arctic
The changes in cold-season mean temperatures over Arctic land regions are broken into three latitudinal bands for each region, as shown on the small map (which has an outer rim of 50° N). Error bars represent standard deviation from the mean. Where greater warming is projected at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes, temperature gradients will be reduced along large north-flowing rivers and this will likely reduce break-up severity. The rever...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic temperature anomaly patterns Arctic temperature anomaly patterns
Natural climate variability is organized into spatial patterns of high and low pressure regions, represented by the Arctic Oscillation (also called the Northern Annular Mode) and North Pacific patterns in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Southern Annular Mode in the Southern Hemisphere. The patterns of surface temperature anomalies when the Arctic Oscillation and Northern Pacific patterns are in their positive extreme are shown in this fi...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic temperatures in the 20th century, modeled and observed Arctic temperatures in the 20th century, modeled and observed
Observed Arctic winter land temperatures and IPCC model recreations for the 20th century. Note that although these model runs are able to capture the range of Arctic warm and cold periods, the timing of the peaks varies, suggesting that the early 20th century warming was due to random causes, while the increases at the end of the century shown by all the models supports CO2 as an external forcing of the Arctic climate system.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980 Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These recent increases in temperature are confirmed by changes in other features: loss of sea ice, shift of tundra to shrub vegetation, and migration of marine and terrestrial ecosystems to higher latitudes.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mountain permafrost patterns and temperature gradients Mountain permafrost patterns and temperature gradients
Steep terrain and strong variability in surface temperatures are typical of mountain permafrost. The cross section in the foreground shows the complex distribution of subsurface temperatures characteristic of mountains, with the isotherms (lines linking points of equal temperature) nearly vertical in the ridge of the mountain. In the background, the colours on the mountain surface illustrate the strong variability in ground temperatures caused by...
01 Jun 2007 - by Stephan Gruber, University of Zürich. Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arednal
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Projected changes in permafrost (Northern Hemisphere) Projected changes in permafrost (Northern Hemisphere)
Modelled permafrost temperatures (mean annual temperature at the permafrost surface) for the Northern Hemisphere (Arctic), derived by applying climate conditions to a spatially distributed permafrost model. (a) Present-day: temperatures averaged over the years 1980– 1999. Present-day climatic conditions were based on the CRU2 data set with 0.5° x 0.5° latitude/longitude resolution. (b) Future: projected changes in temperatures in comparison with ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in spring temperatures and ice break-up dates in Canada Trends in spring temperatures and ice break-up dates in Canada
In Canada, recent evidence indicates a shortening of the freshwater-ice season over much of the country with the reduction being mainly attributable to earlier break ups. These trends match those in surface air temperature during the last 50 years. For example, similar spatial and temporal patterns have been found between trends (1966 to 1995) in autumn and spring 0°C isotherms (lines on a map showing location of 0°C air temperatures) and lake fr...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska Trends in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska
There has been a general increase in permafrost temperatures during the last several decades in Alaska, northwest Canada, Siberia, and northern Europe. Permafrost temperature records have been obtained uninterrupted for more than 20 years along the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Alaskan transect, which spans the entire continuous permafrost zone in the Alaskan Arctic. Records from all locations along the transect show a substantial w...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ozone hole size 1980–2006 Ozone hole size 1980–2006
The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due to early warming of the polar stratosphere caused by air disturbances originating in mid-latitudes, rather than by major changes in the amount of reactive chlorine and bromine in the Antarctic stratosphere.
01 Oct 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic ozone depletion and stratospheric temperature Arctic ozone depletion and stratospheric temperature
Changes in ozone amounts closely follow temperature, with colder temperatures resulting in more polar stratospheric clouds that intensify ozone destruction. The results are compared from 1979 to 2006.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected impact of climate change Projected impact of climate change
Future climate change and projected impacts: Increased growth and yield rates due to higher levels of carbon dioxide and temperatures could result in longer growing seasons. For example, in mid to high latitude regions, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report moderate local increases in temperature (1-2ºC) can have small beneficial impacts on crop yields.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate zones of the Caucasus ecoregion Climate zones of the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion covers an area of 580,000 km2, and includes six countries. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range with its lofty peaks forms a formidable barrier between the northern and southern parts of the ecoregion. The Lesser Caucasus mountain chain extends across Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and into Iran. The climates in the regions mountaineous and temperature.
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
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Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the same time increased the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, primarily through the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases, and scientists have been able to connect human activities ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cold places on the Southern Continent Cold places on the Southern Continent
Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent on Earth. This graph shows the annual temperatures and seasonal variation at three locations in Antarctica - the research bases Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile - on the Antarctic Peninsula), Scott Base (New Zealand - Ross Island) and one of the coldest places on the planet - the Vostok station (Russia - at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet). The surface temperatures are long term average...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980 Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These recent increases in temperature are confirmed by changes in other features: loss of sea ice, shift of tundra to shrub vegetation, and migration of marine and terrestrial ecosystems to higher latitudes.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Projected temperature increases in the Arctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment) Projected temperature increases in the Arctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment)
Climate change, due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has lead to increased temperatures and large scale changes in the Arctic. The Arctic sea ice is decreasing, permafrost thawing and the glaciers and ice sheets are shrinking. The projected climate situation in 2090 are presented in this figure, the temperatures are annual values from the NCAR-CCM3 model, ensemble averages 1-5 for the SRES A2 experiment. The ice ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected impacts of climate change Projected impacts of climate change
Global climate change may impact food production across a range of pathways (Figure 17): 1) By changing overall growing conditions (general rainfall distribution, temperature regime and carbon); 2) By inducing more extreme weather such as floods, drought and storms; and 3) By increasing extent, type and frequency of infestations, including that of invasive alien species (dealt with in a separate section).
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050 Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050
Figure 24: Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050 with climate change (A2 scenario), non-food crops incl. biofuels (six OECD scenarios), land degradation (on yield and area, respectively, see text), water scarcity (including gradual melt of Himalayas glaciers, see box and text) and pests (invasive species of weeds, pathogens and invertebrates such as insects, see text). Although these effects may be considerable, ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Simulated Future Temperature Trends Simulated Future Temperature Trends
Weather patterns are altered.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual Temperatures Increases for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980 Annual Temperatures Increases for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980
Average surface temperature anomaly (oC)
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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