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Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that climate may be quite sensitive to internal or external climate forcings and feedbacks. This figures have been derived from the Vostok ice core, taken in Antarctica.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda
Developing countries, whose economies often rely heavily on one or two agricultural products, are especially vulnerable to climate change. This graphic shows that with an increase of only 2 degrees Celsius, there would be a dramatic decrease in the amount of land suitable for growing Robusta coffee in Uganda.
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean sea surface temperature on the Caspian Sea Mean sea surface temperature on the Caspian Sea
Recent research by the Caspian Environment Programme estimates the number of living seals to be as low as 150,000. A further reduction in ice cover due to a warming climate could well be one of the major threats facing the Caspian seal in the future.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species) Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species)
The comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their numbers, upsetting the entire food chain. The jelly is an invasive species, brought from North America by ships.
04 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Caspian sea climate, mean annual temperature and precipitation Caspian sea climate, mean annual temperature and precipitation
With the Caspian Sea's north-south alignment, stretching over a distance of approximately 10 degrees, the water body crosses several different climatic regions. The northernmost regions, with Russia and Kazakhstan are characterised by dry and cold temperate continental cliamte. The south part of the sea, with Iran, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan is mountaineous and much warmer. The most precipitation is in the eastern parts, primarily in the southea...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian Sea region Selected impacts of climate change in the Caspian Sea region
As the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases, the temperature in the European part of the Caspian Sea region will continue to rise, at least at first. Some researchers have recently expressed fears that the warm Gulf Stream current in the Atlantic Ocean may slow down due to the changes in the Artic environment and oceanic circulation.
01 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cooling factors Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, but at the same time the upper white surface of clouds reflects solar radiation back into space. Albedo - reflections of solar radiation from surfaces on the Earth - creates difficulties in exact calculations. If e.g. the polar ice...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature trends (1976 - 2000) Temperature trends (1976 - 2000)
Over the 20th century there has been a consistent, large-scale warming of both the land and ocean surface, with largest increases in temperature over the midand high latitudes of northern continents. This graphic shows the temperature changes across the planet from the years 1976 to 2000, as long-term deviations from the expected mean. The higher temperature increases over land surface - compared to ocean surface - is consistent with the observed...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years Temperature and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the past 400 000 years
Over the last 400,000 years the Earth's climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decades. These rapid changes suggest that climate may be quite sensitive to internal or external climate forcings and feedbacks. This figures have been derived from the Vostok ice core, taken in Antarctica.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global average temperature 1880 - 2100 Global average temperature 1880 - 2100
The graph shows the average global temperature from 1880 to 2100. It shows that the average global temperature has slowly increased since 1880 and is estimated to increase noticably over the course of the next hundred years.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda
Developing countries, whose economies often rely heavily on one or two agricultural products, are especially vulnerable to climate change. This graphic shows that with an increase of only 2 degrees Celsius, there would be a dramatic decrease in the amount of land suitable for growing Robusta coffee in Uganda.
12 Feb 2006 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Trends in regional average surface temperature in the Ferghana Valley area Trends in regional average surface temperature in the Ferghana Valley area
An important factor when looking at the region in terms of environment and security is the impact of climate change in Central Asia in general, and Ferghana Valley in particular. By modifying people’s livelihood, climate change may have an important security dimension in conjunction with other aggravating factors. In the Ferghana valley it is likely that climate change will primarily affect sector related to water and agriculture. Central Asia is...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti' Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti'
Climate change affect the health of the population, not only through heat waves and waterborne diseases, but also as a result of the expansion of geographical areas conducive to the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as yellow fever, dengue and malaria. Species of mosquitoes, such as the group ‘Anopheles gambiae’, ‘A. funestus’, ‘A. darlingi’, ‘Culex quinquefasciatus’ and ‘Aedes aegypti’, are responsible for propagation of the majority of...
16 Sep 2006 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Assosciate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature increase in the Arctic, 2090 scenario Temperature increase in the Arctic, 2090 scenario
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090. The Arctic is a place where the effects of climate change are already very visible, and scenarios suggests that this will be one of the regions were the effects will be at its strongest.
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected temperatures in the 21th century Projected temperatures in the 21th century
Projected Arctic annual land temperature increases for the first half of the 21st century relative to the average temperature for 1980–99. The average of the IPCC models (the blue line) shows an increase of 3ºC by 2050. The averages of the runs from each of the 12 models show increases from 2–4ºC, the range of uncertainty in these model projections.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records
Evidence from tree rings and other temperature proxies suggests that during the previous 500 years global temperatures were 1.0ºC cooler than those of the 20th century during a period roughly from 1300 to 1870 – known as the Little Ice Age. While overall temperatures during the Little Ice Age were cooler than now, there was much year-to-year variability and some warm periods. The coldest part of the Little Ice Age, from 1645 to 1715, was also a t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in spring snow cover duration for the Northern Hemisphere, 1970-2004 Trends in spring snow cover duration for the Northern Hemisphere, 1970-2004
Examination of regional trends in spring snow-cover duration from 1969–2003 using NOAA snow-cover data shows the western United States to be among the regions with the strongest decreases. This supports results from studies based on measurements on the ground. Springtime snow cover shows a decline particularly in the Pacific Northwest region of the western United States, where snow water equivalent, a common snow cover measurement equivalent to t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in Arctic temperature, 1880-2006 Trends in Arctic temperature, 1880-2006
A history of Arctic land temperature anomalies from 1880 through 2006 is shown in this figure. The zero line represents the average temperature for 1961–1990. In the late 1800s the Arctic was relatively cold, although there is some uncertainty around these early temperature estimates. The Arctic warmed by about 0.7ºC over the 20th century. There was a warm period in the 1920s to 1940s and cold periods in the early 1900s and in the 1960s. Over th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Schematic diagram of glacier, permafrost and forest limits as a function of mean annual air temperature and average annual precipitation Schematic diagram of glacier, permafrost and forest limits as a function of mean annual air temperature and average annual precipitation
Glaciers and ice caps form around the world where snow deposited during the cold/humid season does not entirely melt during warm/dry times. This seasonal snow gradually becomes denser and transforms into perennial firn (rounded, well-bonded snow that is older than one year) and finally, after the air passages connecting the grains are closed off, into ice. The ice from such accumulation areas then flows under the influence of its own weight and t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Overview on glacier changes since the end of the Little Ice Age Overview on glacier changes since the end of the Little Ice Age
Glaciers and ice caps reached their Holocene (the past 10 000 years) maximum extent in most mountain ranges throughout the world towards the end of the Little Ice Age, between the 17th and mid-19th century. Over the past hundred years a trend of dramatic shrinking is apparent over the entire globe, especially at lower elevations and latitudes. Within this general trend, strong glacier retreat is observed in the 1930s and 1940s, followed by static...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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