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Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, North Patagonia Rapid decline of the San Quintin glacier, North Patagonia
Glaciers grow and retreat at intervals depending on local climate changes, particularly variations in temperature and precipitation . Retreating and diminishing mountain glaciers all over the world, except in the Antarctica, indicate a general trend of global warming.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Rapid retreat of glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru Rapid retreat of glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru
There is now ample evidence of a major retreat of most mountain glaciers during the last 100 years in response to widespread increases in temperature. In recent decades, the rate of glacial recession has increased tremendously. Mountain glaciers supply moisture to mountain forests during thedry and warm seasons. With retreating mountain glaciers, the risk of forest fires increases, with a subsequent reduction of forested areas. Smaller glaciers...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin
Global average temperature increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century, while sea levels rose by 9 to 20 cm. The IPCC projects increases in the global average surface temperature by between 1.4°C and 5.8°C and in sea level by between 9 and 88 cm. Sea level rise in combination with hurricane landfalls presents one of the greatest climate-related hazards in tropical Latin America. From 1945 to 1990 there had been an overall decrease in the number ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cooling factors Cooling factors
The amount of aerosols in the air has direct effect on the amount of solar radiation hitting the Earth's surface. Aerosols may have significant local or regional impact on temperature. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, but at the same time the upper white surface of clouds reflects solar radiation back into space. Albedo - reflections of solar radiation from surfaces on the Earth - creates difficulties in exact calculations. If e.g. the polar ice...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater stress Freshwater stress
Today, the great pressure on water resources is rising human populations, particularly growing concentrations in urban areas. This diagram shows the impact of expected population growth on water usage by 2025, based on the UN mid-range population projection. It uses the current rate of water use per person without taking into account possible increases in water use due to economic growth or improvements in water use efficiency. The regions most v...
07 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential dengue transmission in case of temperature rise Potential dengue transmission in case of temperature rise
A warmer climate increases occasions of vector borne tropical diseases. This figure depicts weeks of potential dengue transmission under current temperature and 2°C and 4 °C warming. Presence of dengue virus, mosquito vector, and exposed human populations are required for disease transmission.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Area of Biomes Protected Area of Biomes Protected
Rising temperatures force many living organisms to migrate to cooler areas, while new organisms arrive. Such movements involve all species, including plants. Some species will seek higher altitudes, others will move further polewards. In temperate regions, plant and tree species can migrate naturally by 25 to 40 kilometres a century. However if, for example, there was a 3°C increase in temperature over a hundred year period in a partic...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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The main Biomes of the World The main Biomes of the World
Defining what constitutes a forest is not easy. Forest types differ widely, determined by factors including latitude, temperature, rainfall patterns, soil composition and human activity.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Projected temperature changes, 2000 to 2100 scenario Projected temperature changes, 2000 to 2100 scenario
Average temperatures changes in the world according to the GFDL model (doubling of CO2 and temperature increase by 3,7°C from 2000 to 2100). According to this model, the changes will be most severe in the Arctic and the Northern hemisphere.
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing
Knowledge and mapping of these processes is still scarce due to uneven research effort. The map shows sites with known dense shelf water cascading phenomena, which often may involve the 'flushing' effect. It is most likely that this phenomenon is also active off the coast of Alaska, Chile, Argentina and West and southern Africa and in parts of the Indian Ocean. Dense shelf water cascading is highly sensitive to increases in temperature, and hence...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change and tropical coral reefs, scenarios for bleaching events Climate change and tropical coral reefs, scenarios for bleaching events
Projected areas of above normal sea temperature where coral bleaching is likely to occur for the SRES A2 scenario (continuing current trends) by two different models, the PCM (1.7°C increase in 100 years) and the HadCM3 (3°C increase in 100 years) by approximately 2035 (left) and by 2055 (right). Both models project severe annual bleaching in more than 80% of the Worlds coral reefs by 2080.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios
The impacts of coral reefs from rising sea temperatures. When coral reefs become heat-exposed they die, leaving the white dead coral, also known as bleaching. With even moderate pollution, the coral are easily overgrown with algae, or broken down by wave activity or storms, leaving only “coral rubble” on the ocean bed.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change scenarios for desert areas by 2050 Climate change scenarios for desert areas by 2050
In desert areas by 2050, the majority of the temperature increase, according to the NCAR-CCSM3 model (and the IPCC SRES A2 scenario), will occur in the Northern Sahara, western Australia and in the inland deserts of North America. The precipitation will increase closer to the equator, but with large decreases primarily in Australia.
06 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change scenarios for desert areas Climate change scenarios for desert areas
SRES scenarios show the period 2071 to 2100 relative to the period 1961 to 1990, and were performed by AOGCMs. Scenarios A2 and B2 are shown as no AOGCM runs were available for the other SRES scenarios.
06 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Arctic region - definitions The Arctic region - definitions
Several definitions of the Arctic, physical temperature boundaries, political boundaries, such as as the CAFF delineation, and the Arctic Circle. Compiled by GRID-Arendal and presented in the CAFF Habitat Conservation Report no.2.
01 Nov 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Malaria risk and climate change Malaria risk and climate change
Plasmodium vivax, with the Anopheles mosquito as a vector, is an organism causing malaria. The main climate factors that have bearing on the malarial transmission potential of the mosquito population are temperature and precipitation.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Change in permafrost temperature in Fairbanks (Alaska) Change in permafrost temperature in Fairbanks (Alaska)
With a doubling of atmospheric CO2, it is likely that there will be increases in the thickness of the active layer permafrost and the disappearance of most of the ice-rich discontinous permafrost over a century-long time span. This figure provides a good example of changes already observed in Alaska. Widespread loss of discontinous permafrost will trigger erosion or subsidence of ice-rich landscapes, change hydrologic processes, and release CO2 ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in global temperatures Trends in global temperatures
The figure shows the combined land-surface air and sea surface temperatures (degrees Centigrade) 1861 to 1998, relative to the average temperature between 1961 and 1990. The mean global surface temperature has increased by about 0.3 to 0.6°C since the late 19th century and by about 0.2 to 0.3°C over the last 40 years, which is the period with most reliable data. Recent years have been among the warmest since 1860 - the period for which instrumen...
06 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature trends and projections Temperature trends and projections
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean temperature changes relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Climate models calculate that the global mean surface temperature could rise by about 1 to 4.5 centigrade by 2100. The topmost curve is for IS92e, assuming constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 and high climate sensitivity of 4.5 °C. The lowest curve is for IS92c and assumes constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 an...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise due, past and scenarios due to global warming Sea level rise due, past and scenarios due to global warming
Over the last 100 years, the global sea level has risen by about 10 to 25 cm. Sea level change is difficult to measure. Relative sea level changes have been derived mainly from tide-gauge data. In the conventional tide-gauge system, the sea level is measured relative to a land-based tide-gauge benchmark. The major problem is that the land experiences vertical movements (e.g. from isostatic effects, neotectonism, and sedimentation), and these get ...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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