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Mean surface temperature Mean surface temperature
A large thermohaline cell (affected by both temperature and salinity) characterises the general circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Circulation is driven by the water balance deficit and by the heat fluxes between the sea and the atmosphere. The water deficit, caused by greater evaporation than precipitation and river run-off, is mainly compensated for by the inflow of Atlantic water through the Straits of Gibraltar and by the water contributio...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean annual temperature Mean annual temperature
Climatically, the Mediterranean is characterised by warm temperatures, winter-dominated rainfall, dry summers, and a profusion of microclimates (UNEP/MAP/MED POL 2003). Mean annual temperature follows a marked north-to-south gradient, with local variations superimposed by geography.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Annual Mean Temperature Changes for Kariba Annual Mean Temperature Changes for Kariba
The Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC states that global greenhouse gas emissions due to human activities grew by 70 per cent between 1970 and 2004 (IPCC 2009). The emission of greenhouse gases in one region may result in a temperature rise, with associated effects, in another region. Thus the high rate of greenhouse gas emissions across the world is partly the cause of the temperature rise of at least 0.5°C in southern Africa over the past ce...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin average temperature Zambezi River Basin average temperature
The temperature across the river basin varies according to elevation and, to a much lesser extent, latitude. Mean monthly temperatures for the coldest month, July, vary from below 13°C for higher elevation areas in the south of the basin to 23°C for low elevation areas in the delta in Mozambique. The coolest area is the south-eastern part of the basin, part of which is in Zambia and the other part is in Zimbabwe. Ground frost occurs locally in s...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Observed and predicted seasonal temperatures in northwest Mongolia Observed and predicted seasonal temperatures in northwest Mongolia
Herders note that autumn seems colder and longer. The winters are generally colder and have more snow, though 2011 had little snow compared to other years. Herders were not concerned about dzuds, or extreme winter weather conditions, as reindeer are well adapted to cold winds and deep snow. The herders sometimes experience frozen pastures (as in August 2009). While frozen pastures are a disaster to tundra reindeer husbandry, the taiga herders ...
24 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti' Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti'
Climate change affect the health of the population, not only through heat waves and waterborne diseases, but also as a result of the expansion of geographical areas conducive to the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as yellow fever, dengue and malaria. Species of mosquitoes, such as the group ‘Anopheles gambiae’, ‘A. funestus’, ‘A. darlingi’, ‘Culex quinquefasciatus’ and ‘Aedes aegypti’, are responsible for propagation of the majority of...
08 Mar 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean sea surface temperature Mean sea surface temperature
Mean sea surface temperature in winter and summer
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
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Temperature and precipitation in the Caspian Sea Region Temperature and precipitation in the Caspian Sea Region
The Caspian Sea region is climatically diverse encompassing the basins of the Volga and Ural rivers in the North, the vast semi-arid and hot arid plains of northern Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in the east, and the humid Caucasus and Elburz mountains in the south-west. The Caspian Sea plays an important role in atmospheric processes, regional water balance and microclimate. Climatic phenomena in the Caspian are linked to the Northern At...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
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Larimichthys polyactis Catch in early 2000s and predicted Catch Shift Larimichthys polyactis Catch in early 2000s and predicted Catch Shift
(a) Current (early 2000s) and (b) climate-shifted distributions of the small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis (Sciaenidae). The climate-shifted distribution was predicted by a dynamic bioclimate envelope model described by Cheung et al. (2008), under a hypothetical increase in average global ocean temperature of 2.5°C. Boundaries of Exclusive Economic Zones are delineated by the dashed lines.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in permafrost temperatures in the central and northern Mackenzie Valley, 1984-2006 Trends in permafrost temperatures in the central and northern Mackenzie Valley, 1984-2006
Temperature monitoring in Canada indicates a warming of shallow permafrost over the last two to three decades. Since the mid-1980s, shallow permafrost (upper 20-30 m) has generally warmed in the Mackenzie Valley. The greatest increases in temperature were 0.3 to 1°C per decade in the cold and thick permafrost of the central and northern valley. In the southern Mackenzie Valley, where permafrost is thin and close to 0°C, no significant trend in pe...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale
The most recent geological history, in the last hundred thousand years, has been characterised by cycles of glaciations, or ice ages. The historic temperatures, through these times, have been low, and continental ice sheets have covered large parts of the world. Through ancient air, trapped in tiny bubbles in the Antarctic ice, we have been able to see what the temperature cycle was at that time, and also the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2)...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980 Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These recent increases in temperature are confirmed by changes in other features: loss of sea ice, shift of tundra to shrub vegetation, and migration of marine and terrestrial ecosystems to higher latitudes.
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature trends and projections Temperature trends and projections
The global average surface temperature has increased over the 20th century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius. This increase in temperature is likely to have been the largest for any century in the last 1000 years. Evidence from tree ring records, used to reconstruct temperatures over this period, suggests that the 1990s was the warmest period in a millennium. It is very likely that nearly all land areas will warm more rapidly than the global average, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Variations of the Earth's surface temperature for the past 100 millions years Variations of the Earth's surface temperature for the past 100 millions years
The global average surface temperature has increased over the 20th century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius. This increase in temperature is likely to have been the largest for any century in the last 1000 years.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Modeled temperature compared to observed temperature for the last 150 years Modeled temperature compared to observed temperature for the last 150 years
As we can see from models of temperature changes caused by natural forcing, we should have observed a decrease in the global average temperature lately, but we have not. We have observed an increase. A climate model can be used to simulate the temperature changes that occur from both natural and anthropogenic causes. The simulations in a) were done with only natural forcings: solar variation and volcanic activity. In b) only anthropogenic forc...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability
Sensitivity is the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate-related stimuli. Climate-related stimuli encompass all the elements of climate change, including mean climate characteristics, climate variability, and the frequency and magnitude of extremes. The effect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of Temperature Rise on Tea in Kenya Impact of Temperature Rise on Tea in Kenya
Increasing temperatures will likely affect major crops such as tea in Kenya. Major impacts on food production will come from changes in temperature, moisture levels, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, CO2 levels, and pests and diseases. This graphic shows the current locations of tea-growing areas in Kenya, and how some of these areas are expected to become less suitable for tea-growing if there is a temperature rise of 2 degrees Celsius.
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change in Zimbabwe: trends in temperature and rainfall Climate change in Zimbabwe: trends in temperature and rainfall
Zimbabwe is experiencing more hot days and fewer cold days, and the amount of precipitation it receives is deviating from the mean more frequently. This resource includes two graphics. The first shows the number of days with a minimum temperature of 12 degrees Celsius and the number of days with a minimum temperature of 30 degrees Celsius from 1950 to 1990. The second graphic shows the amount of precipitation in millimetres that was a departure f...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Dengue fever incidence; Trinidad and Tobago Dengue fever incidence; Trinidad and Tobago
Shows the increase in dengue fever as temperature rises in correlation with El Niño in Trinidad and Tobago. There is neither good prophylactic nor cure for dengue fever, a disease spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. There are four different strains of the disease. Infection by one of the strains does not provide immunity against the other strains. The symptoms range from a non-specific viral syndrome to fatal hemorrhagic disease. Increasing tem...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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ENSO Variability index ENSO Variability index
Variability in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index 1982-2004, and temperature variation for those years - plus or minus 3 degrees maximum in those years of the ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean and affected region.
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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