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Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development
In the early stages of development, public financial support is needed, both for R&D and then later to encourage deployment (see sections above for examples). Later, private finance can be mobilized for near-competitive technologies and demonstration projects. Public finance mechanisms can encourage the private sector to complement rather than to substitute investment (UNEP, 2011) as illustrated in the figure. As the figure shows, in the late...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas
This figure maps the contribution that each type of space system (communications, weather and climate, navigation, earth observation, surveillance, and science) can make to each policy area (safety, environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous and social development).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Space Technologies and Policy Drivers Space Technologies and Policy Drivers
Space systems provide unique opportunities to meet the needs of northern stakeholders concerned with safety, the environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous rights and social development.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) has the capacity to improve livelihoods, although effects have varied by region and social group. The ability to access and benefit from AKST is uneven, with industrialized countries gaining more than developing countries. Monsanto is by far the largest investor in agricultural research in South America.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000 Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in publicly funded agricultural R&D in many industrialized countries has stalled or declined and has become a small proportion of total spending on science and technology (S&T).
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action
The general model has been to continuously innovate, reduce farm gate prices and externalize costs. This model drove the phenomenal achievements of AKST in industrial countries after WWII and the spread of the Green Revolution beginning in the 1960s. But, given the new challenges we confront today, there is increasing recognition within formal S&T organizations that the current AKST model requires revision.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The percentage of agricultural work carried out by women compared with the percentage of female extension staff in selected African countries The percentage of agricultural work carried out by women compared with the percentage of female extension staff in selected African countries
Only 15% of the world’s agricultural public sector extension agents are women [Global 3]. Women's access to extension is limited by lack of access to membership in rural organizations which often channel or provide training opportunities, and by gender blind agricultural policies that give inadequate attention to women farmer's needs in terms of crops and technology.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions, energy use and economic development; Latin America and the Caribbean CO2 emissions, energy use and economic development; Latin America and the Caribbean
Economic growth and increased energy demand are closely linked to increased emissions of CO2. If there is a shock in the economy, the response as reduced emissions of CO2, can be almost without inertia if the shock is large. The 'oil crisis' in the early seventies-- during which energy prices rose substantially over a short period of time -- led to an almost immediate and sustained divergence of the formerly closely linked emissions and GDP in m...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mining effects on rainfall drainage Mining effects on rainfall drainage
The Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is the number one environmental problem facing the mining industry. AMD occurs when sulphide-bearing minerals in rock are exposed to air and water, changing the sulphide to sulphuric acid. It can devastate aquatic habitats, is difficult to treat with existing technology, and once started, can continue for centuries (Roman mine sites in Great Britain continue to generate acid drainage 2000 years after mining ceased)....
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Information and communication technology expenditures Information and communication technology expenditures
The high tech boom has brought with it a new type of waste – electronic waste, a category that barely existed 20 years ago. Now e-waste represents the biggest and fastest growing manufacturing waste. The black and white TV turned to colour, the basic mobile phone needed a camera, personal organizer and music, and who wants last year's computer when it can't handle the latest software? As we continually update and invent new products the life of t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solid waste management cost for selected cities Solid waste management cost for selected cities
Sound waste management requires a high level of technology and a signif cant budget. What Japan and Germany can afford today, most countries will have to wait a long time for. Developed countries have a lot to learn from the recycling and reuse levels in developing countries.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Waste generation from manufacturing Waste generation from manufacturing
Manufacturing waste, as you would expect from the vast range of products produced and processes involved, is a very diverse group. The waste generated depends on the technology used, the nature of the raw material processed and how much of it is discarded at the end of the chain. Very often manufacturing wastes end up in the hazardous category.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Waste generation from manufacturing industry (by sectors) Waste generation from manufacturing industry (by sectors)
Turning raw materials into consumer products generates waste - depending on the technology used, the nature of the raw material processed and how much of it is discarded at the end of the chain. Very often manufacturing wastes end up in the hazardous category. (please note that the Italy figure is not consistent with the source reference, and is erroneous)
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coral reefs at risk from human activities Coral reefs at risk from human activities
Population growth and technology: operating together these two factors account for the major causes of coral reef decline - excessive domestic and agricultural waste pouring into ocean waters, poor land-use practices that increase sedimentation of rivers and then of reefs, and over-exploitation of reef resources, often in combination with practices such as harvesting with dynamite and poison, all degrade reefs.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biotechnology and modern biotechnology defined Biotechnology and modern biotechnology defined
Modern biotechnology is a term adopted by international convention to refer to biotechnological techniques for the manipulation of genetic material and the fusion of cells beyond normal breeding barriers. The most obvious example is genetic engineering to create genetically modified/engineered organisms (GMOs/GEOs) through “transgenic technology” involving the insertion or deletion of genes.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural) Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural)
Gender equity is an important part of social equity. Women and men, who often have different roles and responsibilities in households and food production, often have different relationships to the various benefits derived from Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and innovations.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arenda
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Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture
Agricultural trade offers opportunities for developing countries to benefit from larger scale production for global markets, acquire some commodities cheaper than would be possible through domestic production, and gain access to new forms of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and equipment (e.g. fertilizers, HYV seeds, pump sets, etc.). Projections for the Doha round of trade negotitations show, though, that for the agricultura...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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