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By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging
The Norwegian sovereign wealth fund is an example of a governance mechanism employed in an attempt to limit investment in companies involved in illegal logging.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Water management in Central Asia: state and impact Water management in Central Asia: state and impact
The withdrawal of water for irrigated agriculture has caused a social and environmental crisis in the Aral Sea Basin. Drying up of the sea has been accompanied by a wide range of other environmental, economic and social problems in the basin. The problems precipitated by this crisis have aggravated the social and economic difficulties caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union. Following the break- up of the Soviet Union the interests of Up-strea...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Exchanges of electricity in the Nordic countries in 1996 Exchanges of electricity in the Nordic countries in 1996
The graphic shows exchanges of electricity in the Nordic countries in 1996. The Nordic countries have a long tradition of cross-border cooperation in providing an efficient and reliable power supply. The main reason for these exchanges has been that each of these countries has a different mix of power generation facilities. In the later years, from around 1997, the coopreation has changed from being an oligopoly structure with dominant state-owne...
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Exchange of electricity in the Nordic countries, 1996 Exchange of electricity in the Nordic countries, 1996
The graph shows exchanges of electricity in the Nordic countries in TWh. The Nordic countries have a long tradition of cross-border cooperation in providing an efficient and reliable power supply. The main reason for these exchanges has been that each of these countries has a different mix of power generation facilities. In the later years, from around 1997, the cooperation has changed from being an oligopoly structure with dominant state-owned e...
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population displacements 1991 to 2001 Population displacements 1991 to 2001
All the states that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia are still fragile, except Slovenia, which joined the EU in 2004, and Croatia, which is well on the way towards European integration. Since the Dayton Peace Agreement (1995), Bosnia and Herzegovina has constituted a state, but split into two entities: the Republic of Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, itself divided into 10 cantons.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The DPSIR Framework The DPSIR Framework
DPSIR is a general framework for organising information and reporting about state of the environment covering Driving forces, Pressures, State of the environment, Impacts and Responses. The idea of the framework was however originally derived from social studies and only then widely applied internationally, in particular for organising systems of indicators in the context of environment and, later, sustainable development.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global International Waters Assessment Tools Global International Waters Assessment Tools
Global International Waters Assessment's (GIWA) assessment tools for monitoring the world's water resources, incorporating five major environmental concerns and application of the DPSIR framework (driving forces-pressure-state-impact-response), are now beginning to yield results of practical use for management decisions. This graphic explains the GIWA Assessment Methodology and GIWA's five main environmental concerns, which are: freshwater shorta...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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DPSIR framework for State of Environment Reporting DPSIR framework for State of Environment Reporting
The DPSIR framework (Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) is used to assess and manage environmental problems. Driving forces are the socio-economic and socio-cultural forces driving human activities, which increase or mitigate pressures on the environment. Pressures are the stresses that human activities place on the environment. State, or state of the environment, is the condition of the environment. Impacts are the effects of envi...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge on the various aspects of climate change including science, environmental and socio-economic impacts and response strategies. The IPCC is recognized as the most authoritative scientific and technical voice on these issues, and it...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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IPCC structure IPCC structure
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge on the various aspects of global change including science, environmental and socio-economic impacts and response strategies. The IPCC is recognized as the most authoritative scientific and technical voice on these issues, and its...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transboundary movements of waste among Parties to the Convention Transboundary movements of waste among Parties to the Convention
Describing and quantifying global trade in waste is difficult. The official figures compiled by the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal are a good start, but have their limitations. Reporting is based on collaboration by member states and the Convention has no means of obliging any state to do so.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Reference map for Kerala State, India Reference map for Kerala State, India
Displays the location Kerala State (Keralam) on a regional map (India + neighbouring countries), as well as on the globe. Kerala is located in southwestern India, on the west coast. The capital of the state is Thiruvananthapuram.
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Reference map for Kerala State, India Reference map for Kerala State, India
Displays the location Kerala State (Keralam) on a regional map (India + neighbouring countries), as well as on the globe. Kerala is located in southwestern India, on the west coast. The capital of the state is Thiruvananthapuram.
07 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biodiversity loss: state and scenarios 2006 and 2050 Biodiversity loss: state and scenarios 2006 and 2050
These projections of biodiversity loss from 2000 to 2050 were produced by the GLOBIO consortium for UNEP's Global Environment Outlook 4. Across the GEO scenarios and regions, global biodiversity continues to be threatened, with strong implications for ecosystem services and human well-being. All regions continue to experience declines in terrestrial biodiversity in each of the scenarios. The greatest losses are seen in Markets First, followed by ...
26 Jan 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water management in Central Asia: state and impact Water management in Central Asia: state and impact
The graphic shows the effects of the shrinking of the Aral sea, and related issues, on both population migration, and environmental impacts in other areas. It also shows other water problems that could lead to tensions and conflicts.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population displacements 1991 to 2001 Population displacements 1991 to 2001
All the states that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia are still fragile, except Slovenia, which joined the EU in 2004, and Croatia, which is well on the way towards European integration. Since the Dayton Peace Agreement (1995), Bosnia and Herzegovina has constituted a state, but split into two entities: the Republic of Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, itself divided into 10 cantons.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Smog over Southeast Asia in 1997 Smog over Southeast Asia in 1997
In 1997 alone haze caused by air pollutants from fire spread for more than 3,200 kilometers, covering six Southeast Asian countries. In the Malaysian state of Sarawak, air pollution reached one the highest recorded indices at 839 g/m3 (levels over 301 g/m3 are equal to smoking 80 cigarettes a day).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003 Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003
In 1970s and 1980s - years of environmental crisis, there were few trees remaining in Niger. Wind-blown sands razed farmers' young crops and they often had to plant crops three times to succeed. Since the middle of the 1980s in the most densely populated parts of Niger farmers have begun to protect and manage young trees and bushes regenerating on their cultivated fields. This is natural farmer-managed forest regeneration. Some trees fix nitrogen...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The vicious cycle of depletion The vicious cycle of depletion
Agricultural systems in the temperate zone tend to occupy fertile soils that would have formerly supported temperate grassland or forest. Land clearance for croplands and pasture has greatly reduced above ground carbon stocks from their original state and soil carbon stocks are also often depleted as tillage disrupts the soil, opening it to decomposer organisms and generating aerobic conditions that stimulate respiration and release of carb...
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wild food harvests in Alaska by area, 1990s Wild food harvests in Alaska by area, 1990s
The harvest of natural resources is a key feature of traditional lifestyles and economies throughout the Arctic, and a continuing reliance on it as a mainstay of indigenous existence in the north is evident. In Alaska, wild food harvests vary considerably by geographic area. The total harvest has been estimated at about 43.7 million pounds (approximately 19.8 million kg) of wild resources, an average of about 375 pounds (170 kg) per capita. This ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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