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Loss of tropical forest in developing regions, 1980-1990 Loss of tropical forest in developing regions, 1980-1990
The graphic shows the amount and rate of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa from 1980 to 1990. Tropical forests are earth's most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice) Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice)
The coastal Arctic food web is closely related to drift ice conditions and seasonal use of shorelines by both terrestrial and sea mammals. Numerous species depend upon each other and the transport of food to and from the marine areas to the coast and inland. Indigenous peoples use most of the food chain and traditionally use both environments for hunting, fishing and gathering.
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice) Coastal Arctic food web (drift ice)
The coastal Arctic food web is closely related to drift ice conditions and seasonal use of shorelines by both terrestrial and sea mammals. Numerous species depend upon each other and the transport of food to and from the marine areas to the coast and inland. Indigenous peoples use most of the food chain and traditionally use both environments for hunting, fishing and gathering.
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96 Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96
The graphic shows the trend of the number of harmful algal blooms in the Western Atlantic from 1970 to 1996. The excess growth of algae is often caused by pollution, and can have negative or fatal effects on some species of fish.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96 Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96
The graphic shows the trend of the number of harmful algal blooms in the Western Atlantic from 1970 to 1996. The excess growth of algae is often caused by pollution, and can have negative or fatal effects on some species of fish.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cumulative impacts on the marine environment Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal development, coastal pollution and dead zones, invasive species, bottom trawling and over-harvest. These impacts will be the strongest in 10-15% of the Worlds oceans. These areas, however, are concurrent with the most productive ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cumulative impacts on the marine environment Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal development, coastal pollution and dead zones, invasive species, bottom trawling and over-harvest. These impacts will be the strongest in 10-15% of the Worlds oceans. These areas, however, are concurrent with the most productive ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea
With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR samples from the North Sea at levels that were 6 standard deviations above previous measurements since 1958. Further evidence of this warning signal is seen in the appearance of a Pacific planktonic plant (a diatom Neodenticula s...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea
With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR samples from the North Sea at levels that were 6 standard deviations above previous measurements since 1958. Further evidence of this warning signal is seen in the appearance of a Pacific planktonic plant (a diatom Neodenticula s...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habitats are now occurring at an alarming rate. Exotic and invasive species have been identified by scientists and policymakers as a major threat to marine ecosystems, with dramatic effects on biodiversity, biological productivity, hab...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Primary threats to the marine environment Primary threats to the marine environment
Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmentation and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs etc.), 4) Invasive species infestations, and 5) Over-harvest from fisheries may individually or combined result in severe impacts on the biological production of the worlds oceans and the services they provide to billions of people ...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the most intensive fisheries and bottom trawling, and major shipping routes. The areas in the figure have been highlighted based on an overview of literature, and the delineation of the areas are approximate.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Fish diversity in freshwater systems Fish diversity in freshwater systems
Although freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and wetlands occupy less than 2% of the Earth's total land surface, they provide a wide range of habitats for a significant proportion of the world's plant and animal species. This graphic explains which areas of the world have high and low populations of fish species and of endemic fish.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in marine and freshwater populations Trends in marine and freshwater populations
The Marine Species Population Index provides an assessment of the average change over time in the populations of 217 species of marine mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The index represents the average value of six regional ocean indices. More pronounced declines are seen in the southern oceans, which is attributed to the fact that major losses and degradation of marine ecosystems in the industrialised world took place prior to 1970. Marine sp...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity
Similar to corals, the region of greatest mangrove diversity is in Southeast Asia, particularly around the Indonesian Archipelago (Burke et al., 2001). There are three distinct areas of seagrass diversity in the Pacific region: the Indo-Pacific (areas around Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea), the seas around Japan, and southwest Australia (Spalding et al., 2002). This graphic illustrates the distribution and biodiversity (low, medium and...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Species diversity in the world's seas Species diversity in the world's seas
There is growing evidence that many marine species are less widely distributed, and therefore more vulnerable to extinction, than previously thought. This graphic shows the diversity of marine mammals, sharks, molluscs, birds, and shrimps and lobsters in the world's marine areas. The data have been modified to show the species diversity of each region as a fraction of the most species-rich region.The maximum number of marine mammals species in a ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Species diversity in the world's seas Species diversity in the world's seas
There is growing evidence that many marine species are less widely distributed, and therefore more vulnerable to extinction, than previously thought. This graphic shows the diversity of marine mammals, sharks, molluscs, birds, and shrimps and lobsters in the world's marine areas. The data have been modified to show the species diversity of each region as a fraction of the most species-rich region.The maximum number of marine mammals species in a ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map, ABA version (2010) Arctic conservation area (CAFF), topographic map, ABA version (2010)
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is a working group under the Arctic Council, for the countries of Russia, Denmark, USA, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Finland and indigenous peoples. Monitoring, assessment, protected areas and conservation strategies are all tasks under this working group. The area that the working group primarily addresses is presented in this map.
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Relative biodiversity scenarios for deserts 2000-2050 Relative biodiversity scenarios for deserts 2000-2050
The relative species abundance, as a ratio of the biodiversity before the advent of man, is high in desert areas. The areas are relatively pristine and has seen little changes induced by human activities. Impacts are most clearly seen at the edges of deserts, in the basins of western North America, along Baja California, and in the drylands of Central Asia and the inland Far East. The graphic is using the IPCC SRES A2 experiment as a parameter.
06 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Invasive alien plants in South Africa Invasive alien plants in South Africa
Species that has been introduced on purpose or spread in the wild threaten livelihoods in agriculture or water resources. As illustrated in this map, some regions of South Africa have very high ratios of invasive alien plants and are subject to government projects to limit the distribution and information campaigns informing the public.
13 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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