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Trends in Phosphorus loads and concentrations, Baltic Sea, 1900-2030 Trends in Phosphorus loads and concentrations, Baltic Sea, 1900-2030
The graphic shows trends in Phosphorus loads and concentrations in the Baltic Sea from 1900 to 1995 with projections to 2030. Phosphorus is an agricultural fertilizer. Phosphorus is produced in nature, but never in its pure form. As an agricultural fertilizer or from sewage released into water, it can cause excessive algae growth.
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population density in the Baltic Sea drainage basin Population density in the Baltic Sea drainage basin
The density of people per square kilometers have been calculated from various statistical sources, and displays the situation at approximately 1990. Population, and specifically cities, act as driving forces in regards to eutrophication on the Baltic Sea, primarily through nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous) released through sewage plants.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major cities in the Andean community Major cities in the Andean community
The urbanisation of the population has been happening since the first city, and is rapidly increasing in rate - especially since the dawn of industrialization. The Andean community consists out of five countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia - that are in the middle income class. The fast growing cities create new problems, like slums, sewage and the supply of resources.
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional trends in biological oxygen demand Regional trends in biological oxygen demand
The graphic is a global comparison of the biological oxygen demand measured in milligrams per litre. It covers the years from 1976 - 2000. The biological oxygen demand refers to the amount of oxygen required by aerobic microorganisms to decompose the organic matter in a sample of water, such as that polluted by sewage.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ratio of wastewater treatment Ratio of wastewater treatment
Sewage treatment is low or absent in many parts of the World, leading to eutrophication of the coastal zone, (toxic) algae blooms and dramatically reduce the ability of coral to recover from bleaching events dramatically. The data reflects the bodies of the UNEP Regional Seas programme.
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Urban water cycle Urban water cycle
This graphic illustrates the impact of human activity on groundwater. It shows that groundwater is obtained from periurban wellfields and urban wells, then used and disposed of as wastewater through pluvial drainage, piped sewage and on-site sanitation and industrial effluent disposal. It also shows that wastewater is treated and then reused for irrigation, with excess flows re-entering the aquifers.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Latvia, topographic map Latvia, topographic map
Latvia is located in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania, comprising of 64,589 sq km. It has a population of 2,290,237 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: Latvia's environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality and sewage system, household, and hazardous waste management, as w...
27 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Discharge of selected pollutants Discharge of selected pollutants
Nitrogen and phosphorous represents nutrients that can be seen as pollutants, as large concentations of those increase eutrophication. Nutrients are present in primarily commercial fertilisers and in sewage. A measure of eutrophication is biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which measures the activity in the water column. High BOD means that there is low water quality (in terms of eutrophication) and high activity of bacteria in the water. This grap...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Caribbean casualties due to hurricanes Caribbean casualties due to hurricanes
From Trinidad to Tallahassee, Florida, tropical storms have ravaged the Caribbean basin, exacting a multibillion-dollar toll on housing, schools, hospitals, roads and sewage systems. Most of the casualties were in Haiti. But almost no community escaped unscathed. In Grenada, half of the population is now homeless, the famed nutmeg groves flattened, the power plants wrecked. The tourism industry that was the island’s lifeblood could take years to ...
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Comparison of global river nitrogen export from natural ecosystems, agricultural systems, and sewage effluents, 1975 and 1990 Comparison of global river nitrogen export from natural ecosystems, agricultural systems, and sewage effluents, 1975 and 1990
Nutrient loading is projected to become an increasingly severe problem, particularly in developing countries. Nutrient loading already has major adverse effects on freshwater ecosystems and coastal regions in both industrial and developing countries.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sanitation sewage and treatment in big cities - Two study cases Sanitation sewage and treatment in big cities - Two study cases
Case study to compare two urban centres.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size for centralized sewage and wastewater connection, however the economic NPV (which includes benefits to health and the environment) shows a positive trend with increas- ing populations. Centralized systems therefore generate a grea...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters
This graphic illustrates the strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonally oxygen-depleted waters. There is a strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonal oxygen-depleted waters. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on treating and reducing municipal and industrial waste, and on reducing nitrogen levels in agricultural runoff. However, less...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, (Le Monde diplomatique) February 2008
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Access to sanitation in Yaoundè Access to sanitation in Yaoundè
Proper disposal of sewage is essential for urban water quality, and in Yaoundè the treatment of wastewater, excreta, and sewage can be classified into two categories – individual wastewater systems (septic tanks and latrines) and collective wastewater systems (sewer and treatment plants). About half of the residents of Yaoundè are connected to the sewer system, while the rest depend on either septic tanks, latrines, or a combination of the two.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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