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Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda
The Mabira forest reserve, on the shores of Lake Victoria hosts valuable wildlife, serves as a timber resource, provides ecosystem services for the water balance and the rainforests represents a tourist destination. Following a proposed plan for clearing a third of the reserve for agricultural use, the values of the forest were calculated by local researchers. This economic evaluation of the forest shows that from a short-term perspective, growin...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests) World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests)
Approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on forests for their livelihoods. Forest and its products provide cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor families. Forestry provides formal and informal employment for an estimated 40-60 million people. The sector contributes in some developing countries more than eight per cent to GDP. Timber may be the most important forest produc...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Electrification and traditional fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa Electrification and traditional fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) consists of 15 countries, with 233 million inhabitants. Apart from Mauritius and the countries around South Africa in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the remaining countries exhibit low rates of electricity access and use of high quality fuels. Easy access to electricity and power increases the living standard and enables the development of additional services.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050 Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050
Figure 24: Possible individual ranges of yield and cropland area losses by 2050 with climate change (A2 scenario), non-food crops incl. biofuels (six OECD scenarios), land degradation (on yield and area, respectively, see text), water scarcity (including gradual melt of Himalayas glaciers, see box and text) and pests (invasive species of weeds, pathogens and invertebrates such as insects, see text). Although these effects may be considerable, ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential for cropland expansion Potential for cropland expansion
Current projections suggest that an additional 120 million ha – an area twice the size of France or one-third that of India – will be needed to support the traditional growth in food production by 2030, mainly in developing countries (FAO, 2003), without considering the compensation required for certain losses. The demand for irrigated land is projected to increase by 56% in Sub- Saharan Africa (from 4.5 to 7 million ha), and rainfed land b...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected land use changes Projected land use changes
A central component in preventing loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, such as provisioning of water, from expanding agricultural production is to limit the trade-off between economic growth and biodiversity by stimulating agricultural productivity and more efficient land use. Further enhancement of agricultural productivity (‘closing the yield gap’) is the key factor in reducing the need for land and, consequently, the rate of bio...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Index of biodiversity potential in Central America Index of biodiversity potential in Central America
Biodiversity is vitally important to human well-being as it provides ecosystem services on which humans depend. For many species that are sensitive to even small variations in climate, their primary threat is climate change. Variations in climate affect different species of flora and fauna differently, producing, in some cases, a disruption in food chains and/or in reproductive patterns. It is therefore necessary to reduce or control greenhouse g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Expected impacts of climate change in 2050 Expected impacts of climate change in 2050
It is expected that by 2050 there will be threats to ecosystem services in the Andes and Mexico, in the Central American and Caribbean sub-regions, and in southeastern Brazil, while there will be negative effects on fishing in the Pacific coastal areas of Peru and Chile. The decrease in precipitation will have adverse effects on agricultural yields in several regions and countries throughout the continent. Particularly noteworthy within Latin Ame...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Household income by source, Masvingo province, Zimbabwe Household income by source, Masvingo province, Zimbabwe
A study of households (rich and poor) in the Masvingo Province in southeastern Zimbabwe provides a good example of how agricultural income complements wild income and how it compares with other income sources such as wages and remittances. Agricultural income—from crops and home gardens—contributed 30 percent of total household income (cash and subsistence income combined). Livestock rearing—a modified form of agriculture that relies on wild fora...
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This will cause some low-lying coastal areas to become completely submerged, while others will increasingly face short-lived high-water levels. These anticipated changes could have a major impact on the lives of coastal populations. The small island developing states (SIDS) will be especially vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise, and to changes in ...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. Tourism has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, providing a significant proportion of the GDPs of many developing countries. Small island states are particularly reliant on coastal and marine tourism. In the Caribbean, for example, the industry accounts for a quarter of the total eco...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Public services provide cheaper water Public services provide cheaper water
By bringing water to people water resellers extend the coverage of piped water and provide a service with important benefits for households - but at a price. That price rises with distance from the utility, as defined by the number of intermediaries between the network and the end consumer. Having a regular supply of clean water piped into the household is the optimal type of provision for human development. Experience suggests that households w...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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Human actions leading to coastal degradation Human actions leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and the destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most significant threats to coastal areas. Half of the world’s wetlands, and even more of its mangrove forests, have been lost over the past century to physical alterations, the major causes being accelerating social and economic development and poor-planning (UNEP, 2002). There are currently about one billion people living in coastal urban areas. It is estimated t...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
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Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters
This graphic illustrates the strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonally oxygen-depleted waters. There is a strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonal oxygen-depleted waters. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on treating and reducing municipal and industrial waste, and on reducing nitrogen levels in agricultural runoff. However, less...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, (Le Monde diplomatique) February 2008
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Fourchettes individuelles possibles pour les pertes de rendement et de superficie cultivable à l'horizon 2050 Fourchettes individuelles possibles pour les pertes de rendement et de superficie cultivable à l'horizon 2050
variations du climat (scénario A2), cultures non alimentaires, y compris les combustibles (six scénarios OCDE), effets de la dégradation des sols (sur le rendement et la superficie, respectivement; voir le texte correspondant), raréfaction des ressources en eau (y compris la fonte progressive des glaciers de l'Himalaya (voir l'encadré et le texte) et parasites (espèces envahissantes de mauvaises herbes, de pathogènes et d'invertébrés comme les in...
08 Jun 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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Species Turnover Species Turnover
Change in the initial species richness in 2005 relative to 2001-2005 average (high-range climate change scenario). Studies predict species invasion will be profound in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Among others these changes could result in a significant turnover of species of more than 60% of present biodiversity. This has the potential to disrupt a range of marine ecosystem services including food provisioning.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Slum population in urban Africa Slum population in urban Africa
One of the major challenges of urbanisation in Africa is the rapid expansion of areas of informal settlements. These slum areas tend to lack infrastructure such as pipe-borne water and sewerage, and services such as garbage collection and waste management are often non-existent.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical population trend, Grahamstown 1840-1980 Historical population trend, Grahamstown 1840-1980
While the white population were the majority in the early period of Grahamstown, South Africa, they were outnumbered around 1920. Historically, the non-white population did not pay for water and sanitation services, and this became a problem when this demographic group became the clear majority.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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South Africa biomes South Africa biomes
South Africa is blessed with a rich abundance of biodiversity and a wide range of ecosystems and biomes. Among them are the wetland ecosystems, which occupy approximately seven per cent of South Africa’s total land area. Wetlands are regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems because of all the ecosystem services they provide. But the country’s wetlands are under pressure from both natural and human threats and approximately sixty per cen...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ecosystem services value for the Leuser Ecosystem Ecosystem services value for the Leuser Ecosystem
Values for the various non-carbon ecosystem services (water, regulation of floods and landslides, fisheries, prevention and limitation of fires, agriculture, tourism, and non-timber forest products (NTFP) and biodiversity) were calculated with a discount rate of 4% over a 30-year period. Total value for ecosystem services beyond climate regulation being USD 3,735/ha.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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