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Projected temperature increases in the Arctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment) Projected temperature increases in the Arctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment)
Climate change, due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has lead to increased temperatures and large scale changes in the Arctic. The Arctic sea ice is decreasing, permafrost thawing and the glaciers and ice sheets are shrinking. The projected climate situation in 2090 are presented in this figure, the temperatures are annual values from the NCAR-CCM3 model, ensemble averages 1-5 for the SRES A2 experiment. The ice ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Seasonal variation in the extent of ice and snow cover is greatest in the Northern Hemisphere. Imagine the Earth with white caps on the top and bottom. The top cap increases by a factor of six from summer to winter, while the bottom cap only doubles from summer to winter. This difference is due to snow cover: in the Northern Hemisphere snow cover on land varies from less than 2 million km2 in the summer to 40 to 50 million km2 in the winter3. The...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon cycle Carbon cycle
Living systems play a vital role in the carbon cycle. Photosynthesising organisms – mostly plants on land and various kinds of algae and bacteria in the sea – use either atmospheric carbon dioxide or that dissolved in sea water as the basis for the complex organic carbon compounds that are essential for life.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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East Siberian Arctic Shelf East Siberian Arctic Shelf
The degradation of arctic sub-sea permafrost is already releasing methane from the massive, frozen, undersea carbon pool and more is expected with further warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Antarctic References Antarctic References
Images of Antarctica (left) and Greenland (right) to scale. Antarctica is 50 per cent larger than the United States or Europe. Greenland is 7 times smaller than Antarctica. There is enough ice in Antarctica to raise global sea level by 60 metres and 7 metres in Greenland.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Global Sea-level Rise Global Sea-level Rise
The loss of ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased and will contribute substantially to global sea level rise.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gas Arctic Gas Arctic
The temperature regime of sub-sea permafrost is determined by the annual temperature of the surrounding seawater, just like the thermal regime of terrestrial permafrost is determined by the arctic surface temperature.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Regional Variability in Sea-level Change Regional Variability in Sea-level Change
Regional variability in sea level change relative to the global average by the end of this century.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Radiation Radiation
Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Average sea level 1900-2009 Average sea level 1900-2009
Sea-level rise is accelerating.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Concentration Extent Concentration Extent
Reduced sea ice amplifies warming.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Regional Distribution of Sea-level Trends 1950-2003 Regional Distribution of Sea-level Trends 1950-2003
Satellite altimetry data has revealed that sea level is not rising uniformly.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Current marine shipping uses in the Arctic Current marine shipping uses in the Arctic
Biological invasions are known from around the globe but are relatively less known or studied in the Arctic. This secondary migration of invasives complicates ecological interactions as naturally occurring species from areas adjacent to the Arctic are also expanding their ranges northward. Another study found that the rate of marine invasion is increasing; that most reported invasions are by crustaceans and molluscs; and, importantly, that most i...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Distribution and current trend of polar bear subpopulations throughout the circumpolar Arctic Distribution and current trend of polar bear subpopulations throughout the circumpolar Arctic
Polar bears occur in 19 relatively discrete subpopulations with an estimated worldwide abundance of 20,000– 25,000 animals. Our knowledge of the status and trend of each subpopulation varies due to availability, reliability, and age of data. Furthermore, for many subpopulations, there is limited or no data collected over a sufficient period of time to examine trends. Based on a 2009 review of the worldwide status of polar bears, one of 19 subpopu...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature
Annual rates of population change of individual murre colonies during 12 years after the 1977 climatic regime shift in the North Pacific and during 9 years after the 1989 shift, in relation to changes in sea surface temperatures around the colonies from one decadal regime to the next. Population data are from 32 U. aalge and 21 U. lomvia colonies, encompassing the entire circumpolar region. Ten sites supported both species, so 43 different study...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic
The common eider, Somateria mollissima, has a circumpolar distribution breeding mainly on small islands in Arctic and boreal marine areas in Alaska (Bering Sea region), Canada, Greenland, Iceland, western Europe, and the Barents Sea region. In Russia, there is a gap in distribution along the mainland coast from the Yugorski Peninsula (Kara Sea) to Chaunskaya Bay in east Siberia (Figure 5.1). Important wintering areas include the Gulf of Alaska/Be...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic sea ice food web - schematic illustration Arctic sea ice food web - schematic illustration
Sea ice represents a unique ecosystem in the Arctic, providing habitat to specialized iceassociated species that include microorganisms, fish, birds, and marine mammals. Individual species use sea ice in different ways depending on their biological needs. Ice algae form the base of the food web. Some algae stay attached to the bottom of the ice, some fall into the water column, and some fall to the bottom of the sea, and so provide food for speci...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Ice coverage and primary production in the Arctic Ice coverage and primary production in the Arctic
Temperature changes may influence fish populations both directly, through shifts to areas with preferred temperature, and indirectly through the food supply and the occurrence of predators. The length of the ice-free period in the Arctic, for example, affects annual primary production, which is the basis of the food chain supporting populations of fish, sea mammals, and seabirds. As the amount of ice in the Arctic has considerably reduced since t...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI) Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI)
Dramatic changes, such as sea ice loss, are projected to occur in Arctic ecosystems over the next century. Understanding how the Arctic’s living resources, including its vertebrate species, are responding to these changes is essential in order to develop effective conservation and adaptation strategies. Arctic species that are adapted to these extreme environments are expected to be displaced, in part, by the encroachment of more southerly specie...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Arctic terrestrial species trends 1970-2005 (ASTI) Arctic terrestrial species trends 1970-2005 (ASTI)
Dramatic changes, such as sea ice loss, are projected to occur in Arctic ecosystems over the next century. Understanding how the Arctic’s living resources, including its vertebrate species, are responding to these changes is essential in order to develop effective conservation and adaptation strategies. Arctic species that are adapted to these extreme environments are expected to be displaced, in part, by the encroachment of more southerly specie...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
3