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Biodiveristy in Central Asia [Russian] Biodiveristy in Central Asia [Russian]
Caspian and Balkhash endemic species are under threat of extinction. It is estimated that ten percent of total area needs to be protected in order to sustain development and the countries of the region are seriously behind that benchmark. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment in Central Asia Environment in Central Asia
There are 25 billion tonnes of waste just from mining and metal production in Central Asia. The most effected areas are highlighted based on a variety of different types of environmental damage such as desertification and wind erosion.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy consumption in Central Asia Energy consumption in Central Asia
Industry in Central Asia consumes two hundred to three hundred more energy than in Western Europe. The levels of productivity based on consumption of electricity and gross domestic product is noticeably lower in Central Asia with Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan being the worst at energy consumption.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Health in Central Asia Health in Central Asia
Central Asia has a very high infant mortality rate and many other major health problems. This graphic shows some of the main causes of death as well as infant mortality and life expectancy rates for the region.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water withdrawal and availability in Aral Sea basin Water withdrawal and availability in Aral Sea basin
Agriculture is a mainstay of Central Asia’s economy. With the economic crisis following independence it has become even more important. Agriculture being almost entirely dependent upon irrigation, access to water is of strategic importance. Two major Tributaries – The Naryn and the Kara-Darya – both originating in Kyrgyzstan, join to form the Syr-Darya, one of the two largest rivers serving the Aral Sea Basin, and the key water resource of the wh...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic map, political Arctic map, political
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in sub-arctic and boreal Alaska). The region has rivers and lakes, tundra and the largest forests in the world (the Russian Taiga). This is a simple grayscale political map.
16 Sep 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost. This map features shipping routes in addition - as the sea ice is decreasing, the potential for developing shipping in the Arctic increases.
16 Sep 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Barents Sea vulnerability index Barents Sea vulnerability index
Areas that are vulnerable to pollution from oil and chemical spills where identified using a multiple index in a geographical analysis. Factors, including shoreline sensitivity, corals, benthic conditions, sea birds, marine mammals, fish and fisheries and other sea resources where taken into account and weighed for their importance.
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Barents Sea - Oil free zones Barents Sea - Oil free zones
Proposal from the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) for permanent petroleum-free zones in the Barents Sea. Areas covered with ice for parts of the year are also included in the proposed zones. The map has been drawn up by WWF Norway and is based on vulnerability analyses from Det Norske Veritas (April 2005) and mapping of fish resources from the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research (March 2005).
01 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Fossil fuel resources and oil and gas production in the Arctic Fossil fuel resources and oil and gas production in the Arctic
The Arctic has been opened up for increased exploration of petroleum, gas and mining activities. The Barents Sea, the Mackenzie Valley in Canada and the Alaskan North Slope, are the areas of chief interest at the moment. With increased temperatures and climate change, it is expected that the commercial intrest for more extraction and exploration will increase, as well as shipping of the products. As sea ice decreases, the shipping lanes will beco...
06 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz & Hugo Ahlenius UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements
The figure shows rates at which the ice-sheet mass was estimated to be changing based on radar-altimeter data (black), mass-budget calculations (red), and satellite gravity measurements (blue). Rectangles depict the time periods of observations (horizontal) and the upper and lower estimates of mass balance (vertical). Measurements by satellite techniques based on gravity indicate mass loss at a rate of 138 ± 73 billion tonnes per year during 200...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in permafrost temperatures and active-layer thickness, Northern Tien Shan mountains Trends in permafrost temperatures and active-layer thickness, Northern Tien Shan mountains
Mountain permafrost in Central Asia occupies approximately 3.5 million square kilometers and makes up about 15 per cent of the total permafrost area in the Northern Hemisphere. The climatic variations during the 20th century and especially during the last two decades have impacted current permafrost temperatures. In the Tien Shan Mountains, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and western Mongolian sector of the Altai Mountains, observations over the last 30 ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes
Climate models project that summer sea ice in the Arctic Basin will retreat further and further away from most Arctic landmasses, opening new shipping routes and extending the navigation season in the Northern Sea Route by between two and four months. Previously frozen areas in the Arctic may therefore become seasonally or permanently navigable, increasing the prospects for marine transport through the Arctic and providing greater access to Arcti...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in sea level, 1870-2006 Trends in sea level, 1870-2006
Coastal and island tide-gauge data show that sea level rose by just under 20 cm between 1870 and 2001, with an average rise of 1.7 mm per year during the 20th century and with an increase in the rate of rise over this period. This is consistent with the geological data and the few long records of sea level from coastal tide gauges. From 1993 to the end of 2006, near-global measurements of sea level (between 65°N and 65°S) made by high precision s...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected sea-level rise for the 21st century Projected sea-level rise for the 21st century
The projected range of global averaged sea-level rise from the IPCC 2001 Assessment Report for the period 1990 to 2100 is shown by the lines and shading. The updated AR4 IPCC projections made are shown by the bars plotted at 2095, the dark blue bar is the range of model projections (90% confidence limits) and the light blue bar has the upper range extended to allow for the potential but poorly quantified additional contribution from a dynamic res...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Effects of sea-level rise on water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas Effects of sea-level rise on water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas
The water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas are very susceptible to sea-level rise. This figure illustrates the direct impacts on the water resources sector, as well as the plethora of higher-order impacts which affect not only that sector but most, if not all, other sectors including health, transport and agriculture.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982 and 2005 Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982 and 2005
The red line indicates the median minimum extent of the ice cover for the period 1979–2000. This figure compares the Arctic sea-ice extent in September for the years 1982 (the record maximum since 1979) and 2005 (the record minimum). The ice extent was 7.5 million km2 in 1982 and only 5.6 million km2 in 2005, a difference of 25 per cent. As has been observed in other recent years, the retreat of the ice cover was particularly pronounced along the...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres Cryosphere - winter seasons, Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Seasonal variation in the extent of ice and snow cover is greatest in the Northern Hemisphere. Imagine the Earth with white caps on the top and bottom. The top cap increases by a factor of six from summer to winter, while the bottom cap only doubles from summer to winter. This difference is due to snow cover: in the Northern Hemisphere snow cover on land varies from less than 2 million km2 in the summer to 40 to 50 million km2 in the winter3. The...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population, area and economy affected by a 1 m sea level rise (global and regional estimates, based on today's situation) Population, area and economy affected by a 1 m sea level rise (global and regional estimates, based on today's situation)
Even for today’s socio-economic conditions, both regionally and globally, large numbers of people and significant economic activity are exposed to sea-level rise. The densely populated megadeltas are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise. More than 1 million people living in the Ganges- Brahmaputra, Mekong and Nile deltas will be directly affected simply if current rates of sea-level rise continue to 2050 and there is no adaptation. More than 5...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in Arctic sea ice extent in March (maximum) and September (minimum) in the time period of 1979–2008 Trends in Arctic sea ice extent in March (maximum) and September (minimum) in the time period of 1979–2008
For the Northern Hemisphere (primarily the Arctic), observations using remote sensing technologies have been used to measure the extent and the to assess the development. Despite considerable year-to-year variability, significant negative trends are apparent in both maximum and minimum ice extents, with a rate of decrease of -2.9% per decade for March and -10.5% per decade for September (linear least squares reqression). The differences in extent...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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