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Spots of potential for wave energy harvest Spots of potential for wave energy harvest
Wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the ocean surface. Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, making it more economically feasible to harness in some parts than in others, hence making wave energy a region-specific energy source. For example, strong winds variations are observed within the band between 30 and 60 degrees latitude, and circumpolar storms near the southern...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Looking further offshore and in deeper waters Looking further offshore and in deeper waters
The high capital cost of offshore foundations bounds offshore wind energy to near shore locations. Most of the capacity has been installed in relatively shallow waters (under 20 m deep) no more than 20 km from the coast in order to minimize the extra costs of foundations and sea cables (EWEA, 2009). Most of the recently added capacity is installed in water depths of up 40 metres, as far as 60 kilometres off the coast, as shown in the figure.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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World cargo shipping lanes World cargo shipping lanes
The international shipping industry is responsible for the carriage of about 90 per cent of world trade by volume and is vital to the functioning of the global economy. Without shipping, intercontinental trade, the bulk transport of raw materials and the import/export of affordable food and goods would simply not be possible (ICS, 2012).
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills
The ultimate goal of the shipping industry and its regulators is zero accidents and zero pollution. Although these goals have not yet been fully achieved, considerable progress has been made, especially in the context of pollution from ships, an achievement all the more impressive when it is considered that the total amount of seaborne trade, measured in tonne-miles, has almost doubled since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 – from 17.54 billion tonne...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran
Fluctuating water levels will affect the population of the coastline and can cause substantial economic damage if appropriate measurements are not taken. A rise in sea level of 1.2 metres would flood Anzali, an Iranian city on the low-lying coastal plain in the southwest corner of the Caspian, and turn it into an island, according to forecasts. This would cost the city billions of dollars and cause massive population displacement. The sce...
07 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Mean sea surface temperature Mean sea surface temperature
Mean sea surface temperature in winter and summer
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
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Maps of average sea ice extent in the Arctic summer (September) and winter (March), and in the Antarctic summer (February) and winter (September) Maps of average sea ice extent in the Arctic summer (September) and winter (March), and in the Antarctic summer (February) and winter (September)
Passive microwave sensors on satellites have monitored the extent of the sea ice cover since 19782. This technique is widely used to investigate fluctuations in ice extent over the seasons, variability between years, and longterm trends. The seasonal variation of ice extent is much greater in the Antarctic where there is about six times as much ice in winter as in summer. Currently, in the Arctic, ice approximately doubles from summer to winter. ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses
The lines represent IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) based on different world views. The differences in impacts between the SRES scenarios for the same amount of sea-level rise and protection response reflect differences in exposure (population) and ability to adapt (wealth). The solid lines represent a level of 'constant' (no additional) protection response. The dashed and dotted lines represent the addition of protection respon...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Minimum arctic summer sea ice extent Minimum arctic summer sea ice extent
Sea ice has decreased sharply in all seasons, with summer sea ice declining most dramatically — beyond the projections of IPCC 2007.
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
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Major mineral fuel resources in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Major mineral fuel resources in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia
Mineral fuels for electricity and heat generation take primarily two forms: fossil fuels in the form of oil, natural gas and coal, and uranimum ore for nuclear power. Oil and gas are distributed in different belts, primarily in the North Sea, Caucasus and Northern Russia. Coal in different forms is still an important fuel resource and resources are distributed over the region. Uranium resources are primarily in Ukraine and Central Asia.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation) Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation)
xHydropower, generating electricity through turbines, represents a clean and renewable energy source, but not without problems. Dams and reservoirs disrupt the natural flow, and may increase siltation and evaporation, in addition to severe impacts for wildlife, for instance migrating fish. The gross theoretical capability, presented in this map, represents a calculation based on the topography and precipitation in the countries, and is the amount...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007 Arctic sea ice minimum extent in September 1982, 2005 and 2007
The red line indicates the median minimum extent of the ice cover for the period 1979–2000. This figure compares the Arctic sea ice extent in September for the years 1982 (the record maximum since 1979), 2005 and 2007 (the record minimum). The ice extent was 7.5 million km2 in 1982 and only 5.6 million km2 in 2005 and down to 4.3 million km2 in 2007. As has been observed in other recent years, the retreat of the ice cover was particularly pronoun...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980 Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These recent increases in temperature are confirmed by changes in other features: loss of sea ice, shift of tundra to shrub vegetation, and migration of marine and terrestrial ecosystems to higher latitudes.
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water Ringed seal pupping lair, with the pup in the lair and the female approaching the haul-out hole from the water
Ringed seals are the 'classic' Arctic seal in many regards, being found as far north as the Pole because of their ability to keep breathing holes open in ice that can reach 2 metres in depth. This species is certainly one of the most vulnerable of the high-Arctic seals to the declines in the extent or quality of sea ice because so many aspects of their life-history and distribution are tied to ice. Ringed seals also require sufficient snow cover...
01 Nov 2007 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water management in Central Asia: state and impact Water management in Central Asia: state and impact
The withdrawal of water for irrigated agriculture has caused a social and environmental crisis in the Aral Sea Basin. Drying up of the sea has been accompanied by a wide range of other environmental, economic and social problems in the basin. The problems precipitated by this crisis have aggravated the social and economic difficulties caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union. Following the break- up of the Soviet Union the interests of Up-strea...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transport SO2 emissions Transport SO2 emissions
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows transport SO2 emissions from 1990 to 1998 in Baltic countries.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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GDP: BSR and lowest versus highest GDP: BSR and lowest versus highest
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). The graphic shows the economic wealth of countries in the Baltic States Region.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption of ozone depleting substances Consumption of ozone depleting substances
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows the consumption of the ozone depleting substances Halons and CFCs.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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baltic21_ba-trans-accid3 x baltic21_ba-trans-accid3 x
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000 )
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of tourist hotel overnight stays Number of tourist hotel overnight stays
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows the number of tourist hotel overnight stays in Baltic countries.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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