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Sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea level variations in the Mediterranean
Sea level is rising significantly in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an average 12 cm rise registered on the Levantine coast since 1992. However, causes are not yet known, and a cause-effect relationship with climate change has not yet been established.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran Sea level rise in Anzali Lagoon, Iran
About 77,800 hectares are currently flooded in Iran as a result of sea level rise. Infrastructure is under threat. For example, the power station in Neka region has already been damaged. The rise in sea level has increased the hydrostatic pressure on the underground walls of the power station, and there is great concern that a storm surge may eventually flood the power station itself. The recent flood in Neka caused damage amounting to US$26.5 ...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses
The lines represent IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) based on different world views. The differences in impacts between the SRES scenarios for the same amount of sea-level rise and protection response reflect differences in exposure (population) and ability to adapt (wealth). The solid lines represent a level of 'constant' (no additional) protection response. The dashed and dotted lines represent the addition of protection respon...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability
Sensitivity is the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate-related stimuli. Climate-related stimuli encompass all the elements of climate change, including mean climate characteristics, climate variability, and the frequency and magnitude of extremes. The effect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of Sea Level Rise in Banjul, Gambia Impact of Sea Level Rise in Banjul, Gambia
Climate change is expected to cause a rise in sea level. Sea level rise will have a significant impact on coastal areas, especially coastal megacities such as Banjul, the Gambia. This graphic shows the expected sea level rise in metres for various parts of the city of Banjul, and the impacts of sea level rise on the city, its suburbs and main roads and its nearby mangrove swamps, which serve as spawning grounds for fish.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise: Costa Rica coastal communities under threat Sea level rise: Costa Rica coastal communities under threat
Sea level rise is an important indicator of climate change. A rise in sea level may result in flooding, salinisation of fresh water, coastal erosion and in some cases loss of land to the ocean. As depicted, some coastal communities in Costa Rica are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin
Global average temperature increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century, while sea levels rose by 9 to 20 cm. The IPCC projects increases in the global average surface temperature by between 1.4°C and 5.8°C and in sea level by between 9 and 88 cm. Sea level rise in combination with hurricane landfalls presents one of the greatest climate-related hazards in tropical Latin America. From 1945 to 1990 there had been an overall decrease in the number ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise due to the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers Sea level rise due to the melting of mountain and subpolar glaciers
Oceans change as a result of the impact of climatic variability on glaciers and ice caps that further contributes to fluctuation sin sea leve. Observational and modelling studies of glaciers and ice caps indicate an average sea level increase of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/yr during the 20th century. Since the Last Glacial Maximum about 20,000 years ago, sea level has risen by over 120 m at locations far from present and former ice sheets, as a result of los...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003) Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003)
The two main reasons for sea-level rise are thermal expansion of ocean waters as they warm, and increase in the ocean mass, principally from land-based sources of ice (glaciers and ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica). Global warming from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations is a significant driver of both contributions to sea-level rise. From 1955 to 1995, ocean thermal expansion is estimated to have contributed about 0....
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level change: estimations and predictions Sea level change: estimations and predictions
This resource includes four graphics that explain sea level change, an expected consequence of climate change. The first graphic, 'Relative Sea Level Over the Past 300 Years', shows the changes in sea level rise, in metres, that have occurred between 1700 and 2000 at three different locations: Amsterdam, Brest and Swinoujscie (in Poland). The second graphic, 'Causes of Sea Level Change: Simulated Global Mean Sea Level Changes 1900-2100' and the t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Causes of sea level rise from climate change Causes of sea level rise from climate change
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This graphic explains the causes of sea level change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It explains the IPCC's A1 scenario family, which consists of three scenarios on future use of fossil energy sources, including scenario A1F1, which involves the use of fossil-intensive energy sources. This resource also includes the grap...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Scenarios of sea level rise, now - 2100 Scenarios of sea level rise, now - 2100
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean sea level increases relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Taking into account the ranges in the estimate of climate sensitivity and ice melt parameters, and the full set of IS92 emission scenarios, the models project an increase in global mean sea level of between 13 and 94 cm. During the fist half of the next century, the choice of emission scenario has relatively little effect on ...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise due, past and scenarios due to global warming Sea level rise due, past and scenarios due to global warming
Over the last 100 years, the global sea level has risen by about 10 to 25 cm. Sea level change is difficult to measure. Relative sea level changes have been derived mainly from tide-gauge data. In the conventional tide-gauge system, the sea level is measured relative to a land-based tide-gauge benchmark. The major problem is that the land experiences vertical movements (e.g. from isostatic effects, neotectonism, and sedimentation), and these get ...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential impact of sea level rise: Nile Delta Potential impact of sea level rise: Nile Delta
Rising sea level would destroy weak parts of the sand belt, which is essential for the protection of lagoons and the low-lying reclaimed lands in the Nile delta of Egypt (Mediterranean Sea). The impacts would be very serious: One third of Egypt's fish catches are made in the lagoons. Sea level rise would change the water quality and affect most fresh water fish. Valuable agricultural land would be inundated.
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level change: estimations and predictions Sea level change: estimations and predictions
This resource includes four graphics that explain sea level change, an expected consequence of climate change. The first graphic, 'Relative Sea Level Over the Past 300 Years', shows the changes in sea level rise, in metres, that have occurred between 1700 and 2000 at three different locations: Amsterdam, Brest and Swinoujscie (in Poland). The second graphic, 'Causes of Sea Level Change: Simulated Global Mean Sea Level Changes 1900-2100' and the t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
20 Sep 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nile Delta: Potential Impact of Sea Level Rise Nile Delta: Potential Impact of Sea Level Rise
The potential impacts of sea level rise on the Nile Delta are expected to include a decline in water quality that would affect freshwater fish, the flooding of agricultural land and damage to infrastructure. This graphic shows the Nile Delta region as it is today (2002), the area as it would appear with a 0.5 m sea level rise, and the area as it would appear with a 1.0 m sea level rise.
12 Feb 2006 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential impact of sea-level rise on Bangladesh Potential impact of sea-level rise on Bangladesh
Bangladesh, one of the world's poorest nations is also the country most vulnerable to sea-level rise. The population is already severely affected by storm surges. Catastrophic events in the past have caused damage up to 100 km inland. It is hard to imagine to what extent these catastrophes would be with accelerated sea-level rise. Digital terrain modelling techniques have been used to display the Bangladesh scenarios. A three dimensional view o...
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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