Graphics Library >> Runoff

Tag: Runoff

Zambezi River runoff
A major impact of the construction of the Kariba and Cahora Bassa dams from 1950–1970 was the reduction in the Zambezi River runoff. Before the dam construction, the Zambezi River was torrential with high flows during t...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation (alternative version)
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in continental river discharge
River flow is cyclical in nature, with alternating cycles of wet and dry years. This graphic uses bar graphs to show the average annual volumes of river runoff in cubic kilometres for each continent from 1921 to 1985. Ov...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global sediment loads
Asia exhibits the largest runoff volumes and, therefore, the highest levels of sediment discharge. This graphic shows the amounts of suspended sediments discharged, in millions of tonnes per year, in the major regions of...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aral Sea: trends and scenarios
The demise of the Aral Sea was caused primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya rivers to provide irrigation water for local croplands. This graphic shows the disappearance of the Aral Sea fro...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's surface water: precipitation, evaporation and runoff
The world's surface water is affected by different levels of precipitation, evaporation and runoff in different regions. This graphic illustrates the different rates at which these processes affect the major regions of t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's water cycle: schematic and residence time
The water cycle consists of precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration and runoff. This graphic explains the global water cycle, showing how nearly 577 000 km3 of water circulates through the cycle each year. A table...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Long-term variations in river flow, by continent
River runoff is cyclical in nature, with alternating cycles of wet and dry years. Significant deviations from average values differ in duration and magnitude. For example, 1940-44, 1965-68 and 1977-79 are clearly low per...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
River runoff by continent, 1921-1985
River runoff represents the accumlated water, from preciptation and meltwater, that feeds into rivers that feeds into seas. The estimated annual figures in this graphic is what volume of water that ends up in the World O...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Iceland, topographic map
Iceland is located in Northern Europe, is an island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK, comprising 103,000 sq km. It has an estimated population of 296,737 (2005). Major environme...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater stress and risk
One study suggests that although global water conditions may worsen by 2025 due to population pressure, climate change could have a net positive impact on global water resources. NB! Note that other studies indicate tha...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual snowfall pattern for a typical mountain environment, Columbine Pass, Colorado 1971-2000
Mountain snow cover typically develops in the autumn and grows to a maximum depth in early spring. As day length and sun angles increase, so do air temperatures, causing snow cover to warm and begin to melt. Snow cover ...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Example of enhanced water levels produced from river ice, Liard River, Canada
The lower curve shows the correspondence between river flow and water levels under open-water conditions. The much greater maximum water levels possible under ice-jam conditions are illustrated by the upper curve. The t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic delta pond ecosystems, seasonal flooding and adaptation
The physical development and ecosystem health of river deltas in cold regions are strongly controlled by ice processes and thus are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change. As an example, the photograph shows...
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Time series of intercepted continental runoff and large reservoir storage, 1900–2000
The years 1960–2000 have shown a rapid move toward flow stabilization, which has slowed recently in some parts of the world due to the growing social, economic, and environmental concerns surrounding large hydraulic engi...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mean changes in runoff
Changes in precipitation and temperature influence changes in runoff and the availability of water. Results from models of changes in runoff are consistent with predictions for precipitation. For 2090-2099, in areas for ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The water cycle
Environment water transport system. The water cycle consists of precipitation, vapour transport, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, infiltration, groundwater flow and runoff. Figure 1 explains the global water cycle, ill...
01 Feb 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz , UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nitrate levels: concentrations at river mouths
Nutrients are essential to life. In aquatic systems, nitrogen and phosphorus are the two nutrients that most commonly control the growth of aquatic plants, algae and bacteria. Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered to be...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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