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Damming the world Damming the world
The construction of large dams - defined as those with walls at least 15 metres high - has increased significantly over the past 50 years. The average height of new dams, estimated at 30-34 m from 1940-1990, increased to about 45 m in the 1990s, due largely to construction trends in Asia. The average area and volume of freshwater reservoirs have also steadily increased, rising to about 50 km2 between 1945 and1970, declining through the 1980s to 1...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters
This graphic illustrates the strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonally oxygen-depleted waters. There is a strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonal oxygen-depleted waters. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on treating and reducing municipal and industrial waste, and on reducing nitrogen levels in agricultural runoff. However, less...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, (Le Monde diplomatique) February 2008
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Seasonal patterns of precipitation and runoff Seasonal patterns of precipitation and runoff
The infuence of glaciers on seasonal distribution of river fow is strongly dependent on annual temperature and precipitation cycles, and the proportion of the catchment occupied by glacier ice. Figure 4 compares precipitation and river fow data for heavily and lightly glacierized catchments in the European Alps and Peru. In the European Alps, runoff is greater than precipitation in summer in both heavily and lightly glacierized catchments. This...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Salzach river discharge, Austrian Alps Salzach river discharge, Austrian Alps
Simulated contributions of glacier melt (frn/ice melt) to annual total runoff were calculated between 1 and 4%. In the period 1999–2000, when the glacier mass balance of Goldbergkees and Stubacher Sonnblickkees have been observed to be zero or slightly above zero, the annual contribution of glacier melt was calculated as 1% (Fig. 7). The highest monthly contribution in 2000 was 4% for the month of August, and the highest daily glacier melt was 12...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Glacier shrinkage in hypothetical river basins Glacier shrinkage in hypothetical river basins
Downstream variation in the impact of glacier recession is illustrated in Figure 5, which shows modelled river fows for idealized catchments under climates representative of the western and eastern Himalaya and a 0.06º C per year warming scenario. In the upper parts of the river basins, where glaciers occupy 95% of the catchment area, the impact of glacier shrinkage is large. River discharges increase until mid-century, after which they de...
06 Dec 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni
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Areas that qualify for protection under Indonesian law Areas that qualify for protection under Indonesian law
Under Indonesian law, areas that qualify for protection are based on slope (>40%), sensitive soil types, elevation (above 2000m), and peat land (>3m), thereby preventing any man-made development within most of the Sumatran orangutan’s habitat. Certain sensitive soil types, including deep peat, buffer zones along river banks and around other water sources, and the upper reaches of water catchment areas.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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