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Metal production in the South Kyrgyz mines of the Ferghana Valley Metal production in the South Kyrgyz mines of the Ferghana Valley
In the soviet period the industrial operations paid little attention to environment or public health, resulting in the accumulation of pollutants in the local environment. Because of their vulnerability to natural hazards, previous history of accidents, and their position along water courses and in the vicinity of towns and cities in transboundary areas, tailing dumps at both active and closed mining enterprises constitute an environmental as wel...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Walnut forest in the Jalal-Abad province (Kyrgyzstan) Walnut forest in the Jalal-Abad province (Kyrgyzstan)
The walnut forest is remnants of Central Asia Tertiary era subtropical forests. They are located primarily in the northern slopes of the Ferghana and Chatkal ranges of the Tien Shan and on the southern slopes of the Gissar and Darvaz ranges in Tajikistan. The Jalal-Abad walnut forests is currently under risk of man made damage due to wood fuel cutting, cattle grazing and land cultivating. The forest consists of a remarkable combination of walnut...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population distribution in the Ferghana valley Population distribution in the Ferghana valley
Given the importance of agriculture for the whole Ferghana basin, natural resources such as land and water have historically been amongst the most important factor in this regions development. The size of the population depending upon these resources is consequently a key political security, and environmental issue. The Ferghana valley is the most populous area in Central Asia. High population densities increase the risk of depletion of natural r...
16 Mar 2006 - by Dominique del Pietro and Diana Rizzolio
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Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes
Climate models project that summer sea ice in the Arctic Basin will retreat further and further away from most Arctic landmasses, opening new shipping routes and extending the navigation season in the Northern Sea Route by between two and four months. Previously frozen areas in the Arctic may therefore become seasonally or permanently navigable, increasing the prospects for marine transport through the Arctic and providing greater access to Arcti...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation
The most widely recognised damage occurs to the skin. The direct effects are sun burn, chronic skin damage (photo-aging) and an increased risk of developing various types of skin cancer. Models predict that a 10 per cent decrease in the ozone in the stratosphere could cause an additional 300,000 non-melanoma and 4,500 (more dangerous) melanoma skin cancers worldwide annually.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vulnerabilities Vulnerabilities
Many people from the higher latitudes grill their skin intensely in the sun during their short summer holidays, but only get minimal exposure to the sun for the rest of the year. Such intermittent exposure to sunlight seems to be a risk factor. On the other hand populations with darker skin pigmentation regularly exposed to similar or even higher UV rays are less prone to skin damage.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes
Climate models project that summer sea ice in the Arctic Basin will retreat further and further away from most Arctic landmasses, opening new shipping routes and extending the navigation season in the Northern Sea Route by between two and four months. Previously frozen areas in the Arctic may therefore become seasonally or permanently navigable, increasing the prospects for marine transport through the Arctic and providing greater access to Arcti...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Crushed by war and world conflicts Crushed by war and world conflicts
Conflicts increase the risk of food supply instability tremendously (Figure 31). Countries in conflict and post-conflict situations tend to be food insecure, with more than 20% of the population, and in many cases far more, lacking access to adequate food (IFPRI, 2006). The group of countries that are experiencing civil conflicts cannot meet their basic needs and are large importers of food. In addition, the transport of commodities is haz...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Peat distribution in the World Peat distribution in the World
Peatland soils store a large amount of carbon but there is a grave risk that much of this will be lost as peatland ecosystems worldwide are being converted for agriculture, plantations and bioenergy. Conservation and restoration of tropical peatlands should be considered a global priority.
01 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Murre colonies and human activities Murre colonies and human activities
The thick-billed murre and common murre have ranges 1,000,000 km2 and number in the millions or tens of millions of breeding pairs. However global populations are declining, although increases have occurred in some regions. These seabirds, together with other species of alcids, face a number of direct and indirect marine and terrestrial threats, which influence their survival and reproductive success. These include transboundary pollutants, by-ca...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards
The effects climate change has on different countries are not proportional to their respective contributions to greenhouse gas emissions. Rather, they vary greatly and in some cases the effects may even be positive in specific regions. This presents a general paradox: the countries that are the highest emitters suffer less impact, while those that are lower emitters experience the greatest impact. Metropolitan areas in the region are experiencing...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Seismic risk: recorded earthquakes in the Southern Caucasus [Russian] Seismic risk: recorded earthquakes in the Southern Caucasus [Russian]
Peacefully resolving the overriding political, economic and social concerns of our time requires a multifaceted approach, including mechanisms to address the links between the natural environment and human security. UNDP, UNEP, OSCE and NATO have joined forces in the Environment and Security (ENVSEC) Initiative to offer countries their combined pool of expertise and resources towards that aim. ENVSEC assessment of environment and security linkag...
31 Oct 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Seismic risk: recorded earthquakes in the Southern Caucasus Seismic risk: recorded earthquakes in the Southern Caucasus
Peacefully resolving the overriding political, economic and social concerns of our time requires a multifaceted approach, including mechanisms to address the links between the natural environment and human security. UNDP, UNEP, OSCE and NATO have joined forces in the Environment and Security (ENVSEC) Initiative to offer countries their combined pool of expertise and resources towards that aim. ENVSEC assessment of environment and security linkag...
01 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Highest risk hot spots by natural hazard type Highest risk hot spots by natural hazard type
No data
28 Mar 2006 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural hazard hotspots, by risk type Natural hazard hotspots, by risk type
Disasters and natural hazards represents one strong aspect of vulnerability for the exposed and poor of the World. With climate change, the frequency of certain natural hazards are expected to increase. This map presents an output from an analysis investigating hazard exposure and historical vulnerability for selected natural hazards, together with population distribution and economy. Specifically, this map provides information on what natural ha...
08 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine Environment and security issues in Belarus and Ukraine
The Concept of National Security of Belarus focuses on both external and internal security issues. It directly refers to environmental problems such as global climate change, trans-boundary transport of pollution and the risk of serious accidents at industrial facilities located in Belarus and other countries close to Belarus borders, land degradation and radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cereal productivity in sub-Saharan Africa under a projected Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario Cereal productivity in sub-Saharan Africa under a projected Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario
A majority of the population in sub-Saharan African lives in rural areas, where income and employment depend almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture. This population is today at high risk. Sub-Saharan Africa already has a highly variable and unpredictable climate and is acutely vulnerable to floods and droughts. A third of the people in the region live in drought-prone areas, and floods are a recurrent threat in several countries. With climate ch...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Water storage capacity for selected countries Water storage capacity for selected countries
Cross-country water storage comparisons provide insights into one aspect of risk mitigation capacity. However, storage capacity is only one guide to the linkage between infrastructure and vulnerability. Countries such as Ghana and Zambia have very high levels of water storage per capita - higher, in fact, than the United States - but a limited capacity to mitigate risk. Most of the storage capacity is geared towards power generation, with a very ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Human actions leading to coastal degradation Human actions leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and the destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most significant threats to coastal areas. Half of the world’s wetlands, and even more of its mangrove forests, have been lost over the past century to physical alterations, the major causes being accelerating social and economic development and poor-planning (UNEP, 2002). There are currently about one billion people living in coastal urban areas. It is estimated t...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
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The contribution of climate change to declining water availability The contribution of climate change to declining water availability
The real concern for the future, in the context of changing patterns of rainfall, is the decrease of run-off water which may put at risk large areas of arable land. The map shows how seriously this issue must be taken, while the forecast indicates that some of the richest arable regions (Europe, United States, parts of Brazil, southern Africa) are threatened with a significant reduction of run-off water, resulting in a lack of water for rain-fed ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
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