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Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development
In the early stages of development, public financial support is needed, both for R&D and then later to encourage deployment (see sections above for examples). Later, private finance can be mobilized for near-competitive technologies and demonstration projects. Public finance mechanisms can encourage the private sector to complement rather than to substitute investment (UNEP, 2011) as illustrated in the figure. As the figure shows, in the late...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) has the capacity to improve livelihoods, although effects have varied by region and social group. The ability to access and benefit from AKST is uneven, with industrialized countries gaining more than developing countries. Monsanto is by far the largest investor in agricultural research in South America.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000 Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in publicly funded agricultural R&D in many industrialized countries has stalled or declined and has become a small proportion of total spending on science and technology (S&T).
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Electricity generation by sources in the Nordic countries in 1996 Electricity generation by sources in the Nordic countries in 1996
The graph shows the electricity generation by sources in the Nordic countries in 1996. Nordic countries have a highly developed energy marked, particularly in renewables, partly due to a high number of scientist working in reasearch per head of population and large budgets for development and research.
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Millennium Development Goals: 2005 Trends Millennium Development Goals: 2005 Trends
The Millennium Development Goals, originally devised in 2001 together with the Millennium Declaration, outline a set of reachable and realistic goals and targets. There are eight goals, addressing various areas of development, and each of these have one or several specific targets. Many of the targets have quantitative measures attached to them. The Millennium Project, a UN research initiative set up to evaluate the progress have rated the exist...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Worst Case Scenario for the Amazon Forest Worst Case Scenario for the Amazon Forest
2050. Global climate change has already contributed to rising temperatures in the Amazon which, when combined with deforestation, have led to a cycle of lower precipitation and a greater frequency of droughts. Researchers at Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research say that the Amazon could reach a tipping point – the point at which deforestation and climate change combine to trigger self-sustaining desertification – in 50-60 yea...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Forest Carbon Stock per Region Forest Carbon Stock per Region
Carbon stocks in land based ecosystems are distributed irregularly between tropical and northern latitudes but are mostly concentrated in forest ecosystems and wetlands. Recent research suggests tropical forests play an even more important role in absorbing carbon than previously thought, taking up 1 Gt of carbon every year, or about 40 per cent of the total for land based absorption (Britton et al. 2007).
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Deep waters within and beyond areas of national jurisdiction in East Africa Deep waters within and beyond areas of national jurisdiction in East Africa
The figure demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of marine areas under national jurisdiction in East Africa are deeper than 200 metres (dark blue). Areas in red indicate where the geology/geomorphology might justify (subject to further research and interpretation) a submission/claim to be made by coastal states individually or jointly to increase their national seabed and subsoil areas, which, in turn, may be of major economic potential.
01 Feb 2008 - by UNEP-WCMC and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing
Knowledge and mapping of these processes is still scarce due to uneven research effort. The map shows sites with known dense shelf water cascading phenomena, which often may involve the 'flushing' effect. It is most likely that this phenomenon is also active off the coast of Alaska, Chile, Argentina and West and southern Africa and in parts of the Indian Ocean. Dense shelf water cascading is highly sensitive to increases in temperature, and hence...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean sea surface temperature on the Caspian Sea Mean sea surface temperature on the Caspian Sea
Recent research by the Caspian Environment Programme estimates the number of living seals to be as low as 150,000. A further reduction in ice cover due to a warming climate could well be one of the major threats facing the Caspian seal in the future.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population Density in 1990 Population Density in 1990
West Africa has one of the highest levels of poverty in the world. The purpose of the map is to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
04 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty mapping study area Poverty mapping study area
This map represents the study area for the poverty mapping project for West Africa for generation of reliable statistical and cartographic products to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
04 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty mapping study area Poverty mapping study area
This map represents the study area for the poverty mapping project for West Africa for generation of reliable statistical and cartographic products to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
07 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Early warning systems Early warning systems
Every year, disasters caused by weather, climate and water-related hazards impact on communities around the world, leading to loss of human life, destruction of social and economic infrastructure and degradation of already fragile ecosystems. Statistics from the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) at the university of Leuven, Belgium, reveal that from 1992-2001, about 90% of natural disasters were meteorological or hydrol...
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice Regional changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice
There are major regional differences for the Arctic sea ice, with the strongest decline in ice extent observed for the Greenland Sea (10.6 per cent per decade). The smallest decreases of annual mean sea ice extent were found in the Arctic Ocean, the Canadian Archipelago and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In the marginal Arctic seas off Siberia (the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas) a slight negative, but not significant, trend in ice exten...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000 Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000
During a 20 year period between 1981 to 2000 the amount of agricultural research by developing nations has outgrown those of higher income countries. The increase has been steady throughout the entire period as it is in the Asia Pacific region.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty mapping study area Poverty mapping study area
This map represents the study area for the poverty mapping project for West Africa for generation of reliable statistical and cartographic products to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
11 Feb 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major research stations in Antarctica Major research stations in Antarctica
Antarctica is interesting for many types of researchers. For example, glaciologists study the ice and snow, while oceanographers look at the oceans. The ice, snow and oceans affect the global climate and are presently changing as a result of global warming. The many other types of researchers who work here include geologists (who study rocks), astronomers (who study outer space), and meteorologists (who study the weather). How do researchers stud...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cold places on the Southern Continent Cold places on the Southern Continent
Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent on Earth. This graph shows the annual temperatures and seasonal variation at three locations in Antarctica - the research bases Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile - on the Antarctic Peninsula), Scott Base (New Zealand - Ross Island) and one of the coldest places on the planet - the Vostok station (Russia - at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet). The surface temperatures are long term average...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major research stations in the Arctic Major research stations in the Arctic
The Arctic is interesting for many types of researchers. For example, glaciologists study the ice and snow, while oceanographers look at the oceans. The ice, snow and oceans in the Arctic and Antarctic affect the global climate and are presently changing as a result of global warming. Biologists research the plants and animals, which are specially adapted to the polar regions and will be some of the first in the world to be affected by climate ch...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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