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Existing and potential hydropower projects on the Zambezi River Existing and potential hydropower projects on the Zambezi River
Proposed Dams and Hydropower Projects Water has many critical roles in the realization of socio-economic development in southern Africa. One such role is to provide hydropower to help the region to meet its ever-growing demand for energy. SADC Member States, through the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP), have thus planned to commission a number of hydropower projects in the Zambezi River Basin. The Basin is considered to have enormous capacity ...
21 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Development in Offshore wind capacity Development in Offshore wind capacity
Offshore wind, currently around 3 000 MW, has mainly been concentrated in northern European countries, around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Europe’s leadership is primarily attributed to public policy and a thriving wind energy industry. EU legislation mandates significant reductions of carbon emission, requiring, among other measures, greater usage of renewable energy resources. As of 2011, around 69 wind farms were installed or under const...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Spots of potential for wave energy harvest Spots of potential for wave energy harvest
Wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the ocean surface. Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, making it more economically feasible to harness in some parts than in others, hence making wave energy a region-specific energy source. For example, strong winds variations are observed within the band between 30 and 60 degrees latitude, and circumpolar storms near the southern...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Looking further offshore and in deeper waters Looking further offshore and in deeper waters
The high capital cost of offshore foundations bounds offshore wind energy to near shore locations. Most of the capacity has been installed in relatively shallow waters (under 20 m deep) no more than 20 km from the coast in order to minimize the extra costs of foundations and sea cables (EWEA, 2009). Most of the recently added capacity is installed in water depths of up 40 metres, as far as 60 kilometres off the coast, as shown in the figure.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development Public finance mechanisms across stages of technological development
In the early stages of development, public financial support is needed, both for R&D and then later to encourage deployment (see sections above for examples). Later, private finance can be mobilized for near-competitive technologies and demonstration projects. Public finance mechanisms can encourage the private sector to complement rather than to substitute investment (UNEP, 2011) as illustrated in the figure. As the figure shows, in the late...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation) Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation)
xHydropower, generating electricity through turbines, represents a clean and renewable energy source, but not without problems. Dams and reservoirs disrupt the natural flow, and may increase siltation and evaporation, in addition to severe impacts for wildlife, for instance migrating fish. The gross theoretical capability, presented in this map, represents a calculation based on the topography and precipitation in the countries, and is the amount...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation) Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation)
Hydropower, generating electricity through turbines, represents a clean and renewable energy source, but not without problems. Dams and reservoirs disrupt the natural flow, and may increase siltation and evaporation, in addition to severe impacts for wildlife, for instance migrating fish. The gross theoretical capability, presented in this map, represents a calculation based on the topography and precipitation in the countries, and is the amount ...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Use of Renewable Fuels and Waste for Electricity Generation Use of Renewable Fuels and Waste for Electricity Generation
In 2007, 15.8% of the supply of primary energy in Latin America and the Caribbean came from renewable fuels and waste (solid and liquid biomass, biogas, and industrial and urban waste). This is higher than the worldwide average of 9.5% for the same year. Of the region’s countries, Haiti, Paraguay, Nicaragua and Guatemala each obtain more than 50% of their primary energy from renewable fuels and waste. It is important to note, however, that this f...
06 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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